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Kramer’s Water Car - Part 4:

http://24.19.82.127/egas/files/
GESAMTÜBERSICHT WASSERstoffelektrolyse

---------magnet-resonanz---wasser--------

Watercar Part 10:
Magnetic Electrolysis

By Thomas C. Kramer
December 2003

What is a ‘Magnet’?
A polarized piece of iron. Close enough, but there are other kinds of magnets too.
What is an ‘Electromagnet’?
A piece of iron with copper wire wound around it and with the wire ends connected to a DC power source. Close enough, but there is a large variety of electromagnetic devices to choose from.
What is “Magnetism”?
It’s the thing that holds the Universe together. There are a whole lot of different theories as to where magnetism comes from. Some say it’s a result of particle spins. Others say it’s a wave effect. Still others say that it manifests as a result of cosmic pulses. And there may be positive, neutral and negative magnetism and a whole lot of degrees in between. Some even go so far as to say that gravity is “compressed magnetism”. But no one seems to know for sure except the Creator. But we do know that it manifests itself as a duality in most forms.
It is clear that magnetism manifests itself as a polar effect, positive and negative, north and south, plus and minus. But when scientists cut a magnet in two to find just north or just south, they always get both and just ever smaller and smaller magnets. This goes right down to the smallest particles known. They all end up with a top and a bottom polarity regardless of spin direction or overall charge.
This magnetic force can, in N-S configurations, form magnetic bonds, as has been demonstrated by Professor Santilli and others in forming “magnecules” or magnetically bonded atoms in gases, liquids and even solids. In ‘magnecules’ the atoms and molecules align themselves in a N-S manner as a result of exposing them to strongly induced electromagnetic fields.
Repulsive and Attractive Forces
We also all know that N-to-N poles and S-to-S poles repel each other and N-to-S or S-to-N poles attract each other. This causes a PUSH-PULL EFFECT, which is used to either generate electricity or to turn an electric motor or do other work. It is this polarity and push-pull effect that actually cause electrons, positrons, protons and anti-protons to bond together forming various chemicals and neutrons (an electron and proton pair) or anti-neutrons. These form in a N-S and positive and negative manner for the most part (those that don’t generally decay very quickly) This N-S alignment can form into complex layers of atoms and molecules all generally forming polar alignments like heads and tails. These are called ‘dipoles’. Even our DNA forms a dipole antenna. Water is also one of the great magnetic dipoles. And from Professor Santilli’s plasma research, we now know that a whole new world of chemical reactions can be created called ‘magnecules’ and ‘magnegases’ and ‘magneliquids’ and ‘magnesolids’ that form as a result of ‘magnetic bonding’ and not traditional valence bonding. These highly magnetized and polar aligned atoms allow for a whole new world of chemistry and physics to be explored. Understanding magnetism is thus one of the most important elements of human knowledge as it goes to the very core of our existence.
Types of Magnets:
Generally there are several types of natural magnets with the most common being those associated with iron (Fe) or ferrite compounds originally found in ‘magnetite’, an iron ore that got hit by lightning. Iron when exposed to a DC electric field naturally aligns its atoms in a N-S polar fashion. Iron mixed with various other materials such as some other metals or even plastics can also be magnetized. These magnets, however, generally are not as strong. Relatively recently a newer class of stronger and longer lasting magnets have been discovered and are now in regular manufacture. These are called ‘rare earth permanent magnets’ as they retain their magnetism much longer (except when overheated). These are made from various rare earth elements and are often mixes of several rare earth and conductive metals, including iron. The most common type of magnet, however, is the “electromagnet”. This is a magnetic device that has an iron core wrapped with insulated wire (usually copper) and takes many forms from simple electromagnets used in almost all electric motors, to electrical transformers and generators of all sizes. Electromagnetic coils generate the high voltages that drive your TV or monitor screen and then adjust the electron beam that creates the picture. These are sometimes wound as “solenoids” that when charged force the iron core to move in one direction or the other. Your automatic doors and car locks used these.
Electromagnetic Coils
The neat thing about an electromagnet is that it can be wound around just about any core shape. These can be as simple as winding a copper wire around a nail, or a horseshoe, or as complex as multi-legged transformers or donut shaped rings. S Coil N Horseshoe + - DC + N S Spiral Cone
Pancake Spiral
(OK you draw a spiral using Word)

Generally coils can be made in a whole variety of shapes and sizes and this is where the fun begins. And then you have left-handed and right-handed windings. The strength of an electromagnet is based on the number of winds in the coil, the size of the wire used and the amount of volts and amps applied in the circuit to drive the coil. Simply the more times you wind the wire around the core the higher the voltage will be and the more resistance you will encounter. Resistance also generates some heat, which is a problem with electromagnet design. Pulsing also causes heat build up as a result of resistance in the wires and the core. The number of wraps will also determine the natural frequency of the coil, but this can also be influenced by the frequency of the power source (50-60 Hz for households, rectified to 25-30 half wave Hz for DC) and other electronic circuitry. Victor Walgren has kindly added a formula and a website where you can easily calculate the number of winds needed to generate a specific frequency. This is based primarily on the length of the wire needed for wrapping your cores. The formula is –
f (frequency) = kHz (kilohertz)
L (length of wire) = 300,000/ f / 4 * (3 / 0.9144)
And I haven’t the foggiest as to who figured out this formula, but apparently it works. But if you want a simpler way, just go to –
http://www.csgnetwork.com/w1fmcoilfreqcalc.html
Victor has also contributed some key resonance frequencies that you might try in your preliminary windings. These are –
Magnetic Resonance Frequency(f) Length of Wire
H (hydrogen) = 106.663 MHz 2’ 3 11/16” (27.6875”)
H2 = 15.351 MHz 16’ 0 11/32” (16.029118’)
H3 = 106.663 MHz 2’ 3 11/16” (2.3069193’)
O2 (oxygen) = 13.557 MHz 18’ 1 13/16” (217.8125”)
If you use the website calculator, be sure to adjust your figures in ‘kilohertz’ particularly if the resonance frequencies are in ‘megahertz’.
Here are a few more frequencies for you to try as taken from my chapter on resonance electrolysis. “The first to do this was John Wesley Keely way back in the 1800’s. He accomplished this by using tuning forks placed in water. He found that resonance dissociation occurred around 600 Hz and specifically at 620 Hz (1st octave) and 630 Hz (2nd octave) and 12,000 Hz (3rd octave) and 42.8 kHz. A century later Dr. Andrija Puharich independently discovered these and other frequencies using his own designed resonance device and using AM amplifiers and AC current in a saltwater solution. He found his greatest success at only 25-38 mA and 4-2.6 volts or a power input of 0.1 watts was needed to create resonance within an output range of 59.748 kHz-66.234 kHz. The interesting thing that happened though was that the frequency input in the reactor cell with distilled water in it DROPPED from the 66.234kHz to 1.272 kHz to 1.848 kHz and the waveform changed from a sine wave to a rippled square wave. He also noted that if he removed one lead (created an open circuit) the frequency would jump back up to 5-6 kHz, and the cell would generate unipolar pulses of 0-1.3 volts, noting that the water was acting as a capacitor with a charge cycle of .0002 seconds (which happens to correspond to how the human nervous system works!)
When Dr. Puharich added salt (NaCl) to create a 0.9% saline solution (seawater), the electrolyte resonance effect of course changed. At this point he was using 1mAmp and 22 volts and testing at various frequencies for saltwater resonance. The waveform in the saltwater changed from the rippled square wave to a rippled sawtooth wave, which apparently is the best waveform for maximum efficiency. The resonance frequencies and their harmonics using this electrolyte solution were noted as:
		Initial frequency 	  3.98 kHz
		1st Harmonic		  7.96 kHz  
  		2nd Harmonic		15.92 kHz
		3rd Harmonic		31.84 kHz
		4th Harmonic		63.69 kHz
 
  
One of Dr. Puharich’s friends and brother outcaste from the 
scientific community was Dr. Bob Beck.   
The importance of Dr. Beck’s research in low frequencies is 
that he found that hydrogen naturally resonates at about 8 Hz.  
This is a primary healing frequency.  However,
 what I find more interesting is the following relationship-

	Multiples of    8Hz		Keely (f)	 8.152 Hz

	X   75		 600 Hz	  610 Hz	611.4 Hz
	X   78		 624 Hz	  630 Hz	635.9 Hz
	X 150		  1.2 kHz	  1.2kHz	1.223 kHz
	X 5250		42.0 kHz	42.8 kHz	  42.8 kHz
	X13750         110.0 kHz	     na		112.1 kHz
These directly relate to the tonal harmonics at the resonance frequency of water and should be able to be extrapolated to other harmonics at even higher frequencies.
In fact there are many ‘harmonics’ that can be used to dissociate water. Our search is to find which ones work the best. Try different windings and find out based on these and other posted frequencies. Also note that the use of various electrolytes and varying concentrations in your reactor cell will result in variations in coil wrappings or wire length. The strength of an electromagnet is also influenced by its shape, and how the “electromagnetic field” is timed, shaped, focused or directed. “Timed” refers to how long the coils are turned ON or OFF by the power source, that is, the pulse rate, if any. “Shape” refers to the physical shape of the electromagnetic field, which generally forms concentric arcs from the North pole to the South pole of ever decreasing intensity the farther you get from each pole. This follows the “Inverse Square Law”. This field is seen by placing a magnet under a piece of paper and then sprinkling iron filings over the paper. Magnetic fields also form around the wires that make up the wrappings of the coil causing secondary interference patterns in the primary field. This distortion can vary considerably based on the type of wrapping style used (parallel, twisted, overlapping, braided, looped, etc.). Most commonly used wrapping is just simple parallel windings, but even these get pretty confusing with multi-layers and interlinking with multiple electromagnets, as can be seen in even a simple electric motor winding. Just know that different winding patterns will alter the shape of the EM field and if you want to see the shape, just use the paper and iron filings trick. “Focus” refers to the ability to focus an electromagnetic field by using other electromagnets. Your TV picture tube is a good example of such focusing ability. Coils can thus be used to focus an electromagnetic field into a specific shape based on just varying the strength and design of the electromagnets, noting that the repelling nature or attracting nature of magnetic fields are used to focus other EM fields in order to concentrate the field effect. Pancake (disk) coils and cone coils have particular focusing effects. Telsa coils (very high voltage coils) also produce some spectacular effects using secondary induced coils and various shaped turoids that emit wild sparks. Once a magnetic field can be created and focused it can then be “directed” in specific directions based on the respective polarities. This is how large electromagnets are used to pick up whole cars in scrap yards for crushing. Similarly, large ring magnets switched in high-speed series form atom smashing cyclotrons or magnetic levitation trains. Turning electromagnets ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ in a series of magnets induces directional flow and this is the fundamental basis of pulsed ion engines, which simply squeeze ion particles so that the ions are forced or ‘jetted’ out of a nozzle to create thrust. The same principle applies to simple solenoids and ‘rail guns’. Working with magnets opens all kinds of new and inventive applications. It is these applications that we will be exploring in designing a watercar magnetic reactor.
Watercars and Magnetism
But how does magnetism relate to the production of a watercar?
If you have read my previous chapters you will have seen that I have suggested the use of electromagnets in a number of different applications and even clearly noted that an anode-cathode relationship is nothing more than an electromagnetic field. Electrolysis is just subjecting water to an electromagnetic field. The natural magnetic polarity of water molecules causes them to align themselves head-to-tail so that additional electrons can be added or subtracted in order for the chemical bonds between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms to be broken and the respective gases formed. Basic electrolysis is traditionally enhanced by increasing the strength of the EM field by increasing the DC voltage being applied to the anode and cathode. It can also be improved by narrowing the distance between the electrodes up to a limit of about 1 millimeter (otherwise spark shorting occurs thus closing the circuit). The field can also be enhanced by the introduction of various ‘electrolytes’, either acids or bases, which provide more free radical ions in the water solution thus allowing for easier electron flow in the solution. Electromagnetic Electrolysis Electrolysis is thus fundamentally an electromagnetic water separation process. + _ S N S N H H O O H H Anode Cathode Magnets cause the naturally polarized water molecules to realign themselves along the natural lines of magnetic force between the attractive N-S poles. In weak magnetic fields this N-S field strength usually is not enough to pull the water molecules apart unless there is a circuit connection between the magnets as shown below. S N S N Running a wire between the ends of the magnets will create a loop circuit that will supply electrons on one end and collect electrons on the other, thus allowing for the dissociation of water to occur. Again, however, using weak magnets will only result in very little electrolysis occurring. However, if you use very strong permanent magnets, a reasonable electrolysis reaction can occur. Permanent Magnet Electrolysis This was demonstrated in the Chinese Patent No. ZL 95220793 in which permanent magnets were placed at either end of a chamber filled with water and a 20%-30% sodium hydroxide solution. This invention does not require any external energy or power source to maintain the electrolysis process. This is because it is a closed loop, self-sustaining process. In this Chinese patent the permanent magnets charge electrolysis plates in series in the chamber and use a membrane separation to isolate the hydrogen and oxygen. In a watercar application this separation is not necessary and thus can be eliminated because a mixed gas is used in combustion. There, of course, can be several variations on this permanent magnet electrolysis unit. These variations will relate to the shape of EM fields created and the use of multiple permanent magnets or plates charged by permanent magnets as noted below. Multiple Permanent Magnets Permanent Magnet Plate Configuration Of course you can shape the permanent magnets into bars, plates, rods, tubes, half-tubes, cones or any other shape that you want in order to better shape the EM field in order to maximize the electrolysis effect. There is a lot of room for experimentation here. You can also vary the electrolyte solution type (such as potassium hydroxide or stronger acids) and concentration, vary the type and strength of the permanent magnets and even use coils to enhance the field effects by simply coiling the connecting wire circuits or wrapping them in various ways around the reaction chamber. The plates above can also be substituted with coils (or even screens). Permanent magnet electrolysis is a relatively slow process and is not suitable to hydrogen-on-demand (HOD) as there is no control over the rate of gas production (though this can be adjusted by using a variable resistor on the interconnecting wires). This process is more applicable for creating individual gases or mixed gases for bulk storage and then usage. The fact that the permanent magnet electrolysis runs continuously WITHOUT any external or additional power supply makes the development of this type of electrolysis unit interesting for remote or stationary power supply applications, particularly in combination with fuel cells. But it is not suitable for vehicles UNLESS it is in combination with stronger and controllable electromagnetic devices. Electromagnetic Electrolysis Electromagnetic electrolysis is the same as permanent magnet electrolysis except that the permanent magnets are replaced with electromagnets. Electromagnets also have the advantage that the magnetic fields that they create can be ‘controlled’ by simply varying the DC voltage or pulse rate to increase the strength and duration of the EM fields. This is essentially what we have been doing in creating ‘resonating’ electrolysis. Simply, we create a polarized field, pulse that field and then oscillate the field at various frequencies that cause the hydrogen-oxygen bonds to flex, twist, bend, stretch and then break. Using electromagnets in this process can be done in many different and creative ways. They can be used to strengthen the water polarization field by placing electromagnets behind the anode and cathode plates, or even by using the anodes and cathodes as electromagnets themselves! Electromagnets can also be wrapped around the electrolysis chamber to create a polarized chamber (Aussie Units) or be wrapped around in-coming water supply lines (to charge and polarize the water first) or on the out-going gas lines to magnetize the gases (‘Magnegas”). They can be placed at the top and bottom of electrolysis chambers, or at various angles to the electrolysis plates to create more twisting and turning actions on the water bonds. This effect can also be timed or pulsed in relation to the timing or pulsing of the electrodes, being in-phase or out-of-phase or neutral or anywhere in between! The strength of the EM field can also be varied or alternated between the cathode and anode to perhaps pull stronger in one direction than the other or to cause an alternating “pull-and-tug” movement which when oscillated at specific frequencies may cause resonance dissociation. The shape and field strength of the coils used can also have a significant effect on the electrolysis process. The use of disk or cone coils will certainly have a different effect than standard wound bar coils. Has anyone tried using a helix wound design for the cathode/anode? (Use two combs glued together and wind a pair of wires alternatively between the teeth.) Experiment! Experiment! Experiment! What I have suggested above is a whole new line of electromagnetic electrolysis experimentation that very few people have done to date. This is a wide-open field! Electromagnets are easy to make in many different sizes and shapes. When applied to what we already know about electrolysis, it is clear that in various combinations, the use of electromagnets can only enhance the electrolysis process. How much? This we will have to determine by experimentation. And this is where the fun begins! My challenge to you is to just sit down and build your own electromagnets and test them in a simple electrolysis cell. For this you will need a glass of water, 2 electrodes of whatever design or material you want, a transformer (preferably a variable voltage type) and some type of electrolyte (acid or base). This is your traditional electrolysis cell. WRITE DOWN EVERYTING as you use it, particularly voltage used, electrode materials and design, and electrolytes used and their concentrations. Now get some scavenged wire (enamel or plastic coated, copper or other type of conducting wire) and wrap yourself some magnets around an iron or steel core (an old nail or piece of rebar will do to start). You will probably also want to use a separate transformer or battery for your electromagnets too. One end of your wire will be connected to the positive transformer lead and the other to the negative. Several magnets can be connected at the same time to the transformer leads. When making your coils ALWAYS write down the size and type of wire used, the type and size of the core material, and ALWAYS the number of wraps or windings used (as this will determine magnet strength and resonance frequency). Now throw the switches! The normal electrolysis can be seen to happen in the glass. Now take your properly insulated and mounted beautifully hand-wound brand-new electromagnets and place them at various angles in relation to the anode and cathode in the glass of water. OBSERVE AND RECORD WHAT YOU SEE! Now vary the strength of the electromagnets by increasing their voltage. OBSERVE AND RECORD WHAT YOU SEE! In most cases you will observe very little changes. The gas bubbles may be moved in different directions, but there probably won’t be any significant increase in electrolysis observable. However, if you substitute the glass with a plastic water bottle and capture the gases in a calibrated bottle as previously described, you may be able to record some small increases in actual gas production as a result of using various electromagnetic strengths or alignment positions. For all ‘watercar’ experiments you will want to restrict your power source to a maximum of only 12 volts and about 20 amps (240 watts). This does not mean that you have to restrict the actual voltage pushed through your EM coils. Simply, you can increase your electromagnets strength by running the 12 volts through other power coils (like your ignition coil) or step-up transformers. Transformers are made by winding a second coil over the top of a primary coil. The primary coil induces a voltage in the secondary based on the ratio of the number of turns in the primary to the number of turns in the secondary (i.e., 1:1, 1:2, 1:10, 1:100, etc.). In this way you can increase the voltage in block jumps and then regulate it with variable resistors. Winding Coils Made Easy Anyone can hand wind a coil. Just tightly wrap a wire around a core. But that can become a bit tedious after about 100 wraps and somewhere along the way you loose count! And it is no fun to undo and start counting all over again especially if you have over 1,000 wraps. One of the easiest ways is to build yourself a wrapping machine that simply turns your core slowly and allows you to feed your wire on smoothly. This is just a simple lathe-type device that will hold your core in place and then turn it slowly. You will need to mount a counting device that clicks over with each revolution but these are quite commonly available and can be scavenged from a number of different devices like old photocopy machines, turnstiles, or other types of counting machines. This lathe design can be turned either by hand or by a small motor. I scavenged a box fan motor that turns the directional vanes as it turns very slowly and can be plugged right into a wall socket. Variable speed motors can also be used, but never go too fast and have a big cutoff switch (one of those big red button types that you can hammer real quick.) A lathe unit will work well with straight, bar and cone type coils and for winding simple step-up transformers. An old record player turntable (remember those?) works very well in forming disk coils. And as mentioned above, there are many ways of doing your windings to get different effects. These fancier winding techniques, however, are only for more advanced applications and people who want to experiment with weird coil designs. The fun, however, is in building your own coils and then playing with them. When you finish your coil winding you may want to put a final coating either of enamel, varnish or clear acrylic over the coil. This is mainly to just gum things in place so the coils don’t come loose during handling. You may also want to wrap the final product with a non-conductive coating like paper, rubber or some plastics so that you can pick them up by hand without shocking the hell out of yourself. Simple non-conductive stands are also recommended for mounting and positioning your electromagnets during tests. A wooden stand made from your wife’s (mother’s) old broomstick would do just fine. Pulsing Circuits An electromagnet can be pulsed by simply turning it ‘on’ or ‘off’. This requires a ‘switch’. This can be accomplished manually, or by using a motor-driven rotary switch, or by electronic switching mechanisms. Flicking a switch by hand is OK for simple ON-OFF observations, but it isn’t very practical for timing oscillations. For slow to medium speed oscillations it is easiest to just build a simple rotary switch that you mount to a small variable speed motor. This rotary switch is just a disk (or drum) that you mount various contact points to and then mount a contact brush to make the switching contact. + + Brush ON Brush + + OFF 2nd Brush Long Cycle Short Cycle A rotary switch uses both the length of the charged track and the speed of rotation to control the ON-OFF switching cycles. A rotary switch can also be used to switch ON-OFF multiple circuits just by adding additional brushes. This makes it easy to synchronize in-phase or out-of-phase timing of individual electromagnets. Normally brushes are positioned at 90 degree angles, but experimentation can also be done in 5, 10, 15, 30 or 45 degree increments and with varying lengths of duration. An old record turntable can be used for this. Just glue equal length copper strips to an old record and rig up some brush armatures and you are ready to switch! So you want higher speed? Use an old hard disk drive or CD drive. But glue your copper strips on the side of the CD not used. No need to ruin a good blue movie, right? You can also go out and buy ready-made rotary switches too (now he tells me!), but that isn’t nearly as much fun as making your own from some salvaged rotating devices (“No Dear, I haven’t seen the fan.”) Workshop experimentation should be fun. So come up with your own rotary switches. Remember that Keeley found resonance at only 300-330 Hertz (on-off switching per second), so you may not need a real ripper of a rotating switch. But for the electronics buffs, there’s the “555 solution” and super-high speed switching. This requires a simple timer chip (the 555) and a circuit to go with it. Many of these are already posted to the net and the watercar databases, so I won’t go into these electronic switches in detail. The importance of using an electronic switch, however, is that you will be able to switch the electromagnets at kilohertz rates and time them to known water dissociation resonance frequencies much easier. This is done with simple variable resistors (pots). There are also a number of other electronic timing circuit options that can also be used, particularly those using capacitors to discharge high voltage pulses. Tank circuits can also be used. The electronic switching side has lots of options that I am leaving up to the individual experimenter to make based on his/her own level of knowledge and experience. Have fun making different electronic switches too. For those that take this or any other switching route WRITE IT DOWN so that it can easily be replicated by yourself and others. Testing and Recording Equipment For the kitchen table enthusiast, you probably won’t have much more than a multi-meter and perhaps some old volt or amp meters you salvaged from a junkyard. That’s a start and you will be able to see what may be happening at various locations. Serious guys have all kinds of sensitive and calibrated metering devices, frequency counters and oscilloscopes. My advice is simply use what you have or what you can borrow. Your interest is to see if you can find electromagnetic resonance FIRST and that just takes a bit of eyeballing. Later you have to find out just how you got there so that you can do it again. Recording and Posting Results The purpose of this watercar electromagnetic experimentation is to see if we can find new ways to increase or enhance the electrolysis process by using various types of electromagnets in various configurations to induce increased gas production or resonance. We already know that electrolysis can occur in an electromagnetic field, thus our objective is to find out how best to increase that reaction with the least amount of energy input, electrical or mechanical. We are also interested to find out if we can produce enough gas on demand to operate an internal combustion engine in an automotive application. This theoretically is possible. We now need a practical working model that has commercial potential. My challenge to you is to just go out and try to do this with what you have available. Wind some coils and electromagnets and have fun experimenting. But please do properly record your efforts and post your FAILURES SO OTHERS WON’T REPEAT THEM. And if you are successful…..post that too so we can all repeat your success. You may want to file for patents first, but in the spirit of seeking knowledge and sharing that with others, I hope that you will follow my open lead in trying to make this a better world for all. Thank you. ---------------------1------------------------ Water Car – Kramer Version By Thomas C. Kramer - August 2003 Plan 1: Basic Electrolysis Units 1. Bubblers: The starting point of making your car run on water is a ‘Bubbler’. A bubbler is a simple device that just bubbles air through water to create water vapor that is fed into your engine. This can be done by either blowing air through water or sucking the air through water. Sucking works better because this creates a low pressure over the surface of the water making it easier for the water to vaporize. Low-pressure sucked air can be done using a small pump or much easier by taking a vacuum feed off your engine’s intake manifold. The intake manifold is the easiest, but pumped systems are used where water vapor and fuel gases are blown into the carburetor like in a supercharger system. Both systems will be discussed below with different types of electrolysis units. The purpose of a bubbler is to add water vapor to your fuel mix. That is, to make your car a ‘steam engine’. This causes your fuel to burn slower and cooler, and the water vapor, when heated in the combustion process, expands thus giving you more power with less fuel. A bubbler system on any car should thus give you 10%-15% better gas mileage and a cleaner engine. Hydrogen and oxygen gas tends to burn too fast and too hot, thus running a water car you may have to add a water vapor ‘bubbler’ to your system to add additional water vapor to your fuel intake. This will cool the process and retard or slow down the oxygen-hydrogen burn. Some bubbler designs heat or even boil the water, using placement over the exhaust manifold or by running your air intake into the bubbler from the exhaust pipe! Remember that exhaust gases are only water vapor in a water car. And you will get a positive pressure push too. You can even coil tubing around your exhaust pipe. A bubbler can also be attached to your gas feed line, bubbling the gas (hydrogen/oxygen/LNG/propane) through a water bath. This is a good idea as a backfire arrestor and even a small cup size unit like those found on air compressors could do the trick. You can even do this with a gasoline feed provided you vaporize the gas first. This can be done by first running your gas through a vaporizer. A vaporizer is just a radiator-type coil where your gas is looped back and forth through some tubing a number of times, like the radiator at the back of your refrigerator. This vaporizes the fluid gas before it reaches the carburetor. You can make one out of copper or s. steel tubing by coiling or looping the tubing and placing this after your fuel pump. The gas vapor can then be run through a bubbler to cool the gas and add water vapor before running this into your LNG adapter in front of your carburetor. A Simple Bubbler Design Air IN Water Vapor OUT To Carburetor or Intake Manifold Water IN SIMPLE BUBBLER The engine vacuum at the carburetor or intake manifold will create a low pressure at the top of Air Stone the bubbler causing air to be sucked in and water vapor to be produced. Large bubblers made specifically for generating quantities of water vapor are made from cheap water filters. These are run in reverse with the water IN being the vapor OUT and the water out becoming the air IN. The air IN will require a pipe and an air stone to the bottom of the bubbler and usually a control valve to control the amount of air being sucked through the unit. Several bubblers can also be linked together to provide more water vapor. Bubblers Using Off-the Shelf Water Filters OUT IN OUT Air IN Water IN Cap/Plug Filter Material You will require a water-IN hole to be made in the old water filter so that you can top it up with water occasionally. Water can be sucked in through your air-IN hole but that can bugger up your air stones, so it might be wiser just to drill a hole in the side of the filter or filter cap and insert a tank adapter with a screw plug or rubber stopper in the end. Tank adapters are just small diameter pipes that are threaded all the way and have 2 nuts and rubber washers that seal the connection through the wall of the filter. If you only want a small hole use a short piece of the metal tubing used in lamps. If you come in from the side, use an elbow before your cap so that it will be easier to fill. For hand filling, use a squeeze bottle like the ones used for topping up battery water, but don’t waste your money on distilled battery water, as ordinary tap water will do just fine in a bubbler. Fancy bubblers may have water level sensors that activate solenoid valves that are connected to your main water tank feed line, branching off after the pump and filter. Who wants the extra cost? The main idea of a bubbler is to create ‘bubbles’ of water vapor. The low-pressure vacuum from your intake manifold will cause water to vaporize quicker, but this requires more water surface area in contact with air, thus the more bubbles the better. Aquarium air stones generally work fine but these may cause too much resistance and can clog up with dusty or dirty air intake (Use a sponge filter). You can also use several other techniques for bubble making such as, just drilling small holes in the end of your intake tube, using a number of spacer plates with holes in them up the length of your intake tube, placing stainless steel scouring pads (loosened up a bit) inside your bubbler, and so on. The idea is to reduce airflow resistance but create bubbles of the smallest size possible. It is thus easier to make big bubbles and then break them up a bit, than to try to squeeze out tiny bubbles. The bubbler may need a control valve for better control. The vacuum on your intake manifold is enough to suck your water tank dry in a few minutes if you are not careful. You may also want to insert some plastic filter material at the top of the bubblers to prevent sloshing around when you drive and sucking water directly into the engine. This can be a loose sponge or the plastic filter-mat material used in aquariums. Since internal combustion engines work fundamentally on temperature variations, with the bigger variation the better, you might consider cooling the water vapor before entering the engine. This is done again with a radiator, looping tubing or tubing with fins on it (used in floor heating) before the engine intake. Finally, if your engine is still running hot, even on lean fuel and with a bubbler, you might consider a bigger radiator or an additional radiator fan. This all depends on the climate that you live in. 2. ELECTROLYSIS Creating a water car requires the splitting of water (H2O) into hydrogen and oxygen gas. This is traditionally done using ‘electrolysis’, which is also called ‘hydrolysis’, which is nothing more than running DC current through 2 electrodes placed in water, one positive (anode) and the other negative (cathode). This you learned in high school chemistry. Oxygen Hydrogen Electrolyte Battery or DC Transformer Anode (+) Cathode (-) The process usually results in one of the electrodes being eaten up and heat generated. And you get oxygen on one side and hydrogen off the other electrode. Simple, huh? I used to do this with my electric train transformer and then make soap bubbles that we would ignite with a Bunsen burner on a long stick. My chemistry teacher thought it was a neat trick, but the principal was none too happy with the loud explosions we were creating. As with all normal electrolysis units, the cathode (-) must be of a different metal than the anode (+). The cathode shown in one example system is an iron (Fe) pipe, but other electrode materials such as carbon, stainless steel, lead, magnesium, copper, aluminum and so on, can be substituted. Anodes are usually carbon or stainless steel. The cathode will be destroyed by the electrolysis and thus will require eventual replacement, thus your design should take into consideration the ‘ease’ of replacement of the cathode and/or anode and the cleaning of the reaction chamber. The electrodes should also have as much rough surface area as possible, such as threads, grooves or rough sandpapered surfaces, in order to encourage easier and more gas formation. Screen material can also be used. Shown is the possible use of steel wool (kitchen scouring pads) or iron shavings as a possible insert into the hydrogen cell electrode (cathode) to increase reactor surface area, however, care must be taken so that the filaments won’t fall down and short the cell. A screen or plastic cap with holes should be sufficient. As plating of the reaction chamber will eventually occur because of water impurities and cathode reduction, it is important to design the chamber so that it can be easily cleaned. The designs below allow for the tops to be taken off for easy access. These tops can be secured with stainless steel bolts or by clamps like those used in metal ammunition cases, or be screwed tops as in the bubblers. A normal electrolysis unit will be enhanced if operated in either an acidic or basic condition. This creates excess ions in the solution (H+ or OH-) allowing for better electrical conductivity in the water. Some people use old battery acid or alternatively caustic soda (sodium hydroxide -NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH). (Don’t use both acid and base as they cancel each other out.) Cheaper still is old white distilled vinegar! You don’t need much in any case. And be careful of these chemicals because they can burn your skin and eat nice little holes in your clothes. A bit of salt can also be used, even mineral salts (Epson salts), as these add ions to the water creating an electrolytic solution. A pinch is all that is really needed unless you are making a saltwater electrolysis unit (discussed in Part 3). Salts, acids and strong bases are all corrosive and can eat up the metal parts in your engine, so USE A BUBBLER as a bath before having your gases enter your engine, then change the water in this bubbler occasionally. Under normal electrolysis the electrodes are normally eaten up in the process as the oxygen and hydrogen ions are highly reactive with most metals used as a catalyst. For this reason make the anode out of carbon or stainless steel 316. The hydrogen electrode can be made out of many other metals. Shown is an iron pipe that slips inside a stainless steel pipe. Lead seems to work the best. The trick, however, is to create an electrode with a high surface area, for example the scouring pad. Cella uses old iron bolts that have nice groovy threads. You can also thread an iron pipe all the way at a plumbers shop. And you can always go to your local plumbing supply shop and buy a chunk of lead and make your own molded designs. Carve your design into a candle or use one of those swirled fancy ones, coat the candle with plaster or cement, leaving a hole on one end, then heat the mold melting the candle wax out and pour in the lead. But don’t cook the lead in your wife’s favorite pot on the stove. A steel ladle and propane torch will do just fine. But don’t show the candles to your wife, as she will want them for decoration. Electrolysis does require between 5-15 amps of power, which is supplied by your car’s battery and alternator/generator. When hooking up the system, make sure that you test it first outside the car using a battery or 12 volt DC converter (battery charger) with an ‘on/off’ switch (ignition key) and a 20 amp fuse. In your car you can wire this to your main fuse panel by adding another fuse on the bus bar that is turned on by your ignition key. Make sure that you have the right bus though, as some connections, such as lights, are not activated by the ignition key switch. Simply, you don’t want your electrolysis unit to run continuously, so check your circuits. Electrolysis also creates heat that needs to be dissipated. In flow-through systems, the water is constantly pumped through the reaction chamber and back to a water storage tank, possibly through finned tubing to cool it down. This is the best approach. Closed systems that just ‘top-up’ the water tend to over-heat and can cause the water to boil or create excess water vapor mixed with the hydrogen/oxygen gas. This you don’t want to have happen. Flow-through systems also have the advantage of removing some of the impurities from the reaction chamber, flushing them back to the main water storage tank and then through a water filter before returning to the chamber. This is a real good idea. And it uses those filters that you took out to make your bubblers in another water filter from the main water tank. A small water pump is required from the tank to the filter, and most 12v fuel or aquarium pumps will do. Flow-through Electrolysis System Chamber + - Water Tank Water Filter Pump Controlling Gas Production: The electrolysis process is controlled by varying the voltage supplied to the electrodes. The higher the voltage, the more gas produced. This is done by inserting a variable resistor, better known as a potentiometer or ‘pot’, into the electrical line charging the unit. A ‘pot’ is the same as the volume control on a radio and they come in sliding or rotating versions. You will need one that is rated for 12 volts and the amp range you will be using. Get one that is properly sealed, as it will be exposed to water and heat in the engine compartment. The type and mounting of the ‘pot’ depends on your carburetor linkage point that you intend to use. A gas pedal mounting may use a sliding type, whereas, rotating pots are used when attached to rotating linkage points. You will have to look and see what fits best in your water car. And you will have to make a mounting bracket for your pot. If possible, try to isolate your pot from metal mountings that can heat up. This is not a ‘cooking pot’ so don’t over-heat it if at all possible. The pot will be adjusted later based on engine running conditions thus your mounting should be adjustable. This is usually done with the mounting nuts, but a ‘slider pot’ needs a mounting track. Pressure Switches, Valves and Gauges: Electrolysis units are usually low-pressure ‘gas-on-demand’ systems, thus there is little gas pressure build up in the system. For low-pressure systems a simple pressure release valve or a pressure-activated switch may be used to control upper pressure limits. A pressure switch is probably the simplest to use as it just cuts off the power to the cell when the pressure gets to high and switches the cell back on when the pressure drops. Car brake systems often have pressure switches that indicate brake failure, but what you need is one that trips at about 5 p.s.i. or is adjustable. For high-pressure hydrogen gas systems you will need pressure relief valves, pressure switches and, if you like to see if the system is working, pressure gauges. These are usually mounted on the reactor cell or gas feed line(s). Gauges are usually dashboard mounted and linked to the gas feed line before the carburetor. There are also pressure switches that have digital readouts if you want an electronic dashboard display. And if you really want to go fancy, get a multi-sensor unit that gives pressure, temperature, pH, and water levels all in one! All pressure relief valves must be vented safely to the atmosphere away from the car. A bit of hose does this. 3. Which Gas to Use? 4 Different Electrolysis Systems Electrolysis produces hydrogen (H2) and Oxygen (O2) gas and you can collect either one or both for burning in your engine. Some units can also produce unstable mono-hydrogen or mono-oxygen gas called ‘Brown’s Gas’. A third gas, however, is produced when you convert a bubbler into an electrolysis unit and this is a variation of nitrous oxide (NO) called nitrous hydroxide (N(OH)2, which forms when the oxygen or hydroxide atoms combine with the nitrogen in the air in the bubbler. Nitrous oxide (‘laughing gas’) or ‘nitro’ fuel is what they use in top fuel dragsters to give that extra boost to the fuel. A forth type of fuel is produced by creating a high voltage plasma discharge in water. This is called ‘Bingo Gas” (Naudin) and is also a hydro-nitrous mix of NOH2. All 4 electrolysis systems are discussed below or in other Parts of this report. Some of the electrolysis systems described are also designed to collect just the hydrogen gas as the principal fuel. Others used all the gases produced. I prefer mixed gas systems as you generally get a bigger bang (more energy release and more power) from a mixed gas and a slower burn (requiring less engine adjustments). A. A Mixed Gas Reactor The simplest electrolysis reactor just splits water into hydrogen and oxygen gas and both gases are collect together and fed to the engine. Below is a unit made from an old car battery. This unit probably won’t produce enough gas to run your water car solely on hydrogen and oxygen, but it can easily boost your present gas mileage. The gases produced should be fed through a bubbler, as a backfire arrestor, and then directly into your carburetor. This can be through a hole drilled into your air filter. You can also hook the gas line to your intake manifold, as this will increase performance due to the vacuum created but this adaptation will be discussed in the next section. Mixed Gas Old Battery Electrolysis Unit Mixed Gas Line to Carburetor Water Water IN OUT Get an old car battery and pour the acid out into a plastic basin. You will use a bit of this acid later, so scoop it out carefully and put it into a properly labeled bottle (“DANGER! ACID! Skull’n’Cross Bones”) then keep it out of reach of kids. Flush the battery out with water a number of times to make sure that there is no residual acid. Do this over a drain as there will always be some acid left and it will burn almost anything it spills on. Now you have to figure out how to pry the top part of the battery off. This is the colored plastic top part from the bottom casing. These are usually glued on, but with a trusty penknife and a screwdriver you should be able to break the seals without damaging the casing, too much. If you have too much trouble, just cut around the bottom with a hacksaw blade. It is better if you can pop the top off as it will seal better later, but you can make a rubber gasket later if need be or use lots of silicone sealant. Once opened you will find ‘lead plates’! Great electrode material! Pull these out and inspect them. You may have to clean them off with a wire bush to remove sulfur deposits. Then set the plates aside. Now clean the casing. The casing usually has 6 cells that are individually divided. We will be building a flow-through system, thus you will have to cut some holes in these dividing walls. More and bigger holes should be along the bottom, as you will be flushing the system from the bottom to remove sediments. But you will require holes all along these dividers so that the water can easily pass through. DO NOT DRILL HOLES IN THE TOP PORTION. This is your gas collection area. You will also need Water-IN and a Water-OUT holes. The IN hole is drilled at the top of one end of the casing and the OUT hole is at the bottom on the other end of the casing. Use plastic or stainless tank adapters and rubber gaskets with a sealant to affix these pipes. Note that the OUT pipe is immediately bent ‘up’ so that it reaches the level of the IN pipe. This is so that you maintain a constant water level in the reaction chamber. The height of the OUT pipe can be adjusted a little bit by swinging it off vertical or by using flexible tubing. You may also want to make the OUT pipe a bit bigger in diameter than the IN pipe as the IN pipe will be pumping water in under mild pressure and this will be coming in faster than what may be coming out, thus causing the cell to flood. Flooding can also occur if your main water tank in higher than your electrolysis unit, so make sure it isn’t. This is a gravity feedback in this system. Now lets work on the top plate. This is the gas collector system. Each battery cell has a threaded cap through which you pour water. These caps have a tiny little hole in them to release hydrogen and oxygen gas that is produced when you charge your battery when the car is running. You are going to need a bigger hole for your gas supply line. The size of the holes you drill in these caps is dependant upon what materials you will be using for your gas delivery. You may use stainless steel or copper flex tubing, plastic hoses or PVC pipes. These are usually 1/4” to 3/8” in diameter. Choose the tubing that you can easily get fittings for, as you will need 1 - elbow and 5 - T’s and 6 tank fittings. The important seal is at the cap, thus make sure this is sealed with silicone or epoxy glue. The tank fitting through the cap can either be threaded or be a piece of tubing that is flared on one end. You do have a tapping, threading and flaring set, right? OK, just make a big enough hole and use lots of glue. When your caps are ready, screw them back into their holes tightly. Now you are going to have to decide how to link your cells together. I prefer soft linkages versus hard ones, as you may want to clean them or take them apart or tighten the caps later. For soft linkages use short pieces of surgical rubber tubing to link your L’s and T’s together. Insert nipples into each fitting so that the rubber tubing will have something to slip over. These nipples (short pieces of pipe, guys) are glued or soldered into each fitting and may be just long enough so that later you can use a ‘coupling’ to hard-link them in place. L T Rubber Tubing Cap Once your gas collection manifold is complete and the glue dried you are ready to make your cell plates. As mentioned above, the anode plates should be made out of carbon or stainless steel 316. Stainless steel plates are the easiest to get as you can just buy sheet metal and cut it. You can usually find this (or similar food grade stainless) at sheet metal shops that make commercial kitchen tables for restaurants. And they will have big mechanical shears for cutting the sheets. And if you tell them what you are doing and offer to make a unit for them too, they might just give you the plates for “free”! They usually have ‘off-cuts’ that are just tossed away as scrap too. Measure your battery casing to see what size plates you will need, giving some room for water circulation around the outside edges. Don’t make then too tight fitting. And don’t worry too much about the thickness of these plates. Use what you can easily get. You can even use a stainless steel foil glued to a plastic plate. You will need at least 6 plates but you may want to have more (12, 18, 36, 48, etc.) Make extras if you can afford them. These will come in handy in later modifications. Now we need the cathode plates. What did you do with those lead battery plates? Used battery plates are usually chewed up a bit and may not be in the best of condition, thus you may need to refurbish them. Start by making a plaster mould of the best plate that you have. This is an open half mould made by just pressing a plate into the drying plaster. When the plaster is dry, pop the plate out and then use this mould for making new plates, trimming the edges and even creating groovie patterns. How? Melt down your old plates and some new lead (from a plumbing supply shop or old fishing lead sinkers) and pour the molten lead into your new mould. Now you can make as many new plates as you like, whenever you like. There are also 2 cheats that you can use here if you like. The first is to con your local plumber into using ‘his’ lead pot and cooker to help make your plates. Hey, he may want a water car too! The second is to go down to a battery reconditioning shop and buy new battery plates all ready-made! Now why didn’t I think of that first? Now you have your anode and cathode plates and you are ready to stick things together. Well, almost. The plates have to be mounted in the casing so that they don’t touch each other and are not touching the bottom of the casing. One of the easiest ways to keep the plates apart is to glue thin vertical plastic strips onto the stainless steel plates. How far apart, you say? Well, that depends. It depends on how many plates that you intend to use in each cell. The closest you can get is about 1.0-1.5 mm or about1/8”-3/16” apart, but normal electrolysis will take place even if the plates are far apart. Better results occur when the plates are closer together, as the molecules have less distance to travel in solution. Keeping the plates off the bottom can also be done with glued in spacers, but these should not block the drainage holes or cause pockets for sediment to build up. You might even try some old plastic combs that you glue between the walls. The plates will be naturally spaced between the teeth of the combs too! Just cut them down to size and glue them in place off the bottom a bit. Parallel or Series? What’s that? Your cathode and anode plates can either be hooked up with all leads hooked to the same wire bus (in parallel) or attached one after the other (in series). The original diagram above showed the plates connected in series, which is the most common way of doing it. Parallel connections usually use thicker wires or rods, which are charged positive or negative, and to which each plate is individually attached. Parallel connections theoretically spread the charge more equally to each electrode, whereas, in a series connection there may be a drop in voltage from one plate or cell to the next. To me it is a toss-up in the end as the voltage drop is the same using both wiring techniques. All your plates will require some sort of connecting lead, which is usually just a copper or stainless steel wire soldered or glued to the top corner of each plate. These wire leads are then connected in series or parallel from one plate to the next. All the anode plates would have their leads on the right side and the cathode plates would have their leads on the left side…..well, it depends which end of the casing you are looking from. Hey, just make them opposite each other, OK? Now insert all your plates alternating anode-cathode-anode-cathode, and wire them appropriately together. The wire you use should be fairly thick and PVC coated. You will be running quite a few amps through these wires and the cell may heat up and you don’t want your connections to be eaten up by acid. Coat your connections with epoxy or silicone when finished. The last wire connection will be your positive and negative leads. These will come out through the old (+) and (-) battery terminals at the top portion. You may have knocked the old lead terminals out when you took the top off so the holes left may be a tad bit bigger than the wire you are using to link your cells together. You will thus have to fill in the holes and make sure that the fill material doesn’t leak under pressure. I prefer either using the old lead terminals, which you can salvage, or just epoxy a wire into the hole. Using the old lead terminals you will have to drill a small hole and screw a wire into the bottom of the terminal. The wire on the inside of the top doesn’t have to be very long, but it should have a terminating clip on the end so that it can be connected and disconnected easily from the anode or cathode wires respectively with their corresponding connectors. This will allow for easier cleaning and replacement of cathodes later on. When finally connecting, however, use a dab of silicone to coat the connectors to seal them. Now we are ready to test the reactor. Start with the top off and with the casing with the electrodes in place and wired up, and fill the casing first with distilled water. Check to make sure that your water level completely covers your electrodes. Add one teaspoon of battery acid, a little bit to each cell. Let this sit and go on to your connection circuit. Your testing power source will be either a 12 v battery or battery charger or if you have one, a variable voltage transformer (an AC/DC transformer with a pot attached). Attach the negative (-) terminal or black wire to the cathode wire (the lead plates). Attach the positive (+) terminal or red wire to an ‘ON/OFF’ switch first, making sure the switch is “OFF”! From the switch, wire your own pot (variable resistor) to the anode (stainless steel plates) connector and turn it all the way down. You may have to make a simple mounting for your pot, and make sure that you use a plastic knob (never touch the pot with your bare fingers! They are electrically isolated, however, shorts can occur.) For safety reasons also wear rubber shoes and don’t sit on metal chairs when you play with any electricity. Now you are almost ready to throw the switch! But first, take a deep breath, thank the ALMIGHTY…..NOW! DO IT! Don’t be disappointed. All that you will see is a bunch of little bubbles forming on your plates. Probably no great froth of foam or anything really very exciting at all. Now twist your pot slowly and see if more bubbles appear. Woah! Magic! Now turn everything OFF. It’s time to put the top back on. Disconnect your wires from your power source. Connect the top wires to the anode and cathode leads. Now put the top back on. The top needs to be re-sealed to the casing. If you were able to separate it without breaking the casing then you should be able to do this with just a bit of silicone sealer all around the edges. If not, then make a rubber gasket and a simple clamp-frame, the kind used to hold your battery in place in your car. Making a clamp-frame may even be a wise idea as you will eventually want to attach your reactors somewhere in your car and this can be used as a mounting just like the one for your battery. See? These clamp-frames usually have 2 long bolts with wing nuts at either end that hold the battery in place. In this case the nuts and bolts squeeze the top to the casing to create a firm seal. Test the seals all around with some soap bubbles by plugging off the gas and water OUT lines and blowing into the Water IN line. Better yet, have some idiot kid do the blowing while you do the checking. Now get a 1.0-1.5 liter plastic drinking water bottle, a pail of water and some hose to connect your gas manifold to the drinking water bottle. Fill the water bottle full of water, then turn it upside down in the bucket. Run the hose into the bottle and wait. Now hook up your positive and negative wires again, turn your pot down and go out and find a watch with a second hand. You are about ready to see how much gas your reactor is able to produce. What you are going to be doing is testing the reactor at various voltage settings to see how much gas you are actually producing. You will first have to blow out the air in the reactor by turning it on and letting it run for a few minutes at full throttle. You will see bubbles coming out of the tube in the water bucket. After running for a few minutes most of the old air will be blown out and a reasonable test can be made. Now, Mr. Science, you are ready. Reset your pot to its lowest setting. Now turn the switch on and start timing. When the water bottle is full of gas stop timing and record how long it took. Using a 1-liter bottle you can easily calculate liters/minute in gas output. Now repeat this test setting the pot open a bit more each time until it is fully opened. Your test results should give you a rough curve as to your reactor’s performance. This can also be tested noting variations in temperature, atmospheric pressure, higher voltages and amps and with varying amounts or types of acid, base (lye) or salt in your electrolyte solution. This simple test is how you find out how to maximize your gas output. NOW FOR SOME FUN! Get one of those kiddy bubble pipes, the kind that you blow into and lots of bubbles come out. You already know where I’m taking you, huh! Hook this up to your gas hose and blow bubbles! Now with your trusty Bic cigarette lighter in hand…..go blow your fingers off! It’s a New Years’ kind of a celebration! Have fun! You deserve it for all the hard work you put in. And when you finished celebrating the fact that you are a genius…. Now you have to install your unit in your car! Oh yeah! Installation Instructions The installation has 2 parts: one is the main water tank and supply system and the other is the reactor system. As we are proposing a flow-through system, the main water tank will have to be located lower than the reactor so that water can drain back to the tank easily and not flood the reactor. This tank will most likely be located in the trunk (boot), but you may find space under the hood (bonnet) for locating this tank in front of the radiator or even under the reactor unit. The main water tank doesn’t have to be that BIG. One gallon (or 5 liters) is enough water to take you a very long way, so an old plastic milk jug may do just fine. You will have to drill a hole in the cap for the water OUT hose and another hole for the water IN or return hose, and a third hole for your vent-cum-refill hole. Valve Vent/Refill To Reactor Valve Pump Water Filter Plastic or rubber hose is all that is needed for these through tank connections, but you should seal the holes with epoxy or silicone after you run your tubing through. You should also have a reasonable mounting for your tank so that it won’t fall over. Rubber or canvas tie-down straps should be sufficient. I also recommend that you use 2 small plastic ball valves on either side of your tank so that you can easily disconnect it for cleaning or later for installing a bigger tank. These connections just use ordinary hose clamps so that things come apart easily. You may be experimenting with different types of water, acid or base mixes and different electrode materials, thus tank cleaning between each experiment may be required. The vent tube has to be vented to the outside of the car. You may have to drill a hole in the body for this but there are many inconspicuous places that this can be done. You may also want to stuff some plastic matting material into the tank to prevent sloshing around, but this is optional and dependant upon tank design used. And if you want to get fancy, install water level detectors and a dashboard display just like your fuel gauge. You local junkyard will have these. The ‘el cheapo’ version is to use an old coffee urn with one of those glass tubes on the side that you can see the water level all by yourself or make one with some clear plastic tubing along the side of your tank. The pump is any small 12v electric pump. Electric fuel pumps work just fine and don’t create too much pressure. You do not want a pump that pushes out thousands of gallons a minute, just a simple little thing that can push the water through the water filter and then through the tubing to the reactor. The ball valve can be used to regulate this pressure and flow to keep it down to reasonable levels. The water filter is the same as the cheap one you got for your bubbler. The filter cartridge that you took out of your bubbler is used as a spare for this filter. The pump and filter will also require a secure mounting but this is fairly easy to find as these are small parts. The pump is wired to your ignition bus with a red wire and to negative or ground with a green or black wire. You should be able to go through an existing fuse connection or add a new fuse to this bus. Now you need some tubing. The length is dependant upon where your water tank system is and where you locate your reactor/bubbler system. You will be running 2 parallel tube lines from your water tank to the reactor and back. If your water tank is in the trunk (boot) then you can either run your lines through the passenger compartment or underneath the car body. I prefer underneath as the lines will be out of site, are easier to attach and you won’t have to drill through your firewall. If you have room in your engine compartment, it is that much easier. Flooding going downhill? Your reactor will work fine while driving on flat or uphill grades, but you may get flooding going downhill as your water tank may become higher than your reactor. To avoid this you may need to install a small mercury switch that will turn your pump ‘off’ if the grade reaches a preset level. A mercury switch is just a small tube with a little glob of mercury in it and an electrical contact at either end. When the mercury glob touches the contact at the end of the tube a circuit connection is made. Simple? This switch goes between the positive wire lead to the pump and must be securely mounted so that it can be adjusted for the angle of the car body. The alternative is to use level sensors in your reactor and use these to turn the pump on and off, noting that the setting should be fairly close in order to maintain a flow-through effect. Hooking Up Your Reactor: Before you built your reactor and bubbler you, of course, measured these and found enough space in your engine compartment. Right? Let’s see, if I take out the battery, remove the radiator, disconnect the aircon and power steering….AHHH! Enough space! So much for compact cars, huh? Into the trunk (boot) you go! Actually, putting the reactor in the back is much easier as all the other components are already there and you will save on tubing. You will only need to run your gas line to the engine. And you can easily mount your reactor above your water tank just by eyeballing your mountings. Your reactor requires the water IN/OUT connection and the electrical connections as described above for the cells and for the pressure control switch. The gas OUT should be connected to a bubbler, but in this case there should be very little water in the bubbler as there is not much pressure being generated and the purpose is basically just as a flame arrestor in case of a backfire. This bubbler should be in the engine compartment and as close to the injection point as possible. You may also have a second water vapor bubbler attached to your intake manifold already, so don’t confuse the two. The gas line should be made out of flexible stainless steel or copper tubing for safety reasons. You can cheat with plastic or rubber tubing with this low-pressure system but think safety first and double-check all connections with soapy bubbles before and after some use. The mixed hydrogen-oxygen gas in this preliminary system will be fed directly into your carburetor with the air intake. This type of reactor doesn’t produce a whole heck-of-a-lot of gas, so this is just added fuel to the engine that will allow you to lean down your gas (petrol) intake, resulting in much better gas mileage. The “pot” will control the gas output to engine speed so that when you lean down your petrol it will be more balanced through the rpm range. (If you ran your reactor on full all the time the idle would be to fast and leaning adjustments would be more difficult.) The easiest connection for the mixed gas is to drill a hole in your air filter and run the hose link through there to as close to the carburetor intake as possible. You can play around with this distance a bit to see if you can create a bit of suction on the gas pipe that may produce a bit of negative pressure on your mixed gas manifold. Don’t expect much, but a proper setting distance can improve gas production. Now, if all the water and fuel lines have been attached and tested, wiring connected and checked and everything looks ready…..you made sure that you put some acid or base in your water….all the valves are open…..switches ‘on’…..you are not ready! First jack the car up, particularly the drive wheels must be off the ground. You are going to be adjusting the engine in running condition, so it isn’t too safe for you to be hanging in the engine compartment while your wife or girlfriend drives you around the block. Right? With the car jacked up, start the engine and let the engine warm up for a few minutes. It should be running normally as the ‘pot’ is set at its lowest setting and little or no mixed gas is being added. Now turn the pot up a notch or two. The engine should speed up a bit. If it doesn’t, turn the pot up a bit more. When the rpm’s go up, lean down the carburetor a little bit until the rpm’s go back to normal idle (600-800 rpms). You are going to have to tickle and tweek these ‘pot’ and carburetor settings a little bit till you get the optimum mix at idle. Now, step on the gas! If you are too lean, the engine will slowly rev. And do note that this type of reactor does not respond immediately with a lot more gas production. It will take a few seconds for the gas to come down the line, even if sucked a bit. If the engine revs fast, even on a lean carburetor setting, you are ready to roll! Drop the jacks and take the car for a spin. Road response is often much different and you will probably have to adjust your pot up another notch when you get back to the garage. But drive around and see if things are working as expected. Tweek some more and experiment with different settings until you feel comfortable and the engine runs smooth. The next thing you are going to do is to keep a record of your gas and water mileage! Every time you fill-up, record the amount of fuel put in, the mileage and top up your water tank with that 1-liter or quart water bottle, measuring as close as possible the amount of water used. This record is very important, as you will be using it to compare various settings and other variables that you may use when experimenting with your system. Hopefully you will be able to post your results up to the Internet for others to see as well! With smiling faced pictures! Now, go out and drive around a bit…. Show off your new invention to all those guys that supplied you with parts…. Boast to your buddies….. Then write on your car door, “THIS CAR RUNS ON WATER!” Then DUCK! The men in black will be visiting you soon. Maintenance: All normal electrolysis units will require periodic cleaning due to impurities in the water and the degradation of the cathode. This cleaning duration is lengthened when using a flow-through system with a filter on it, but it does not eliminate the need for eventual cleaning, replacement of cathode plates, and changing of water filter cartridges. As the cathode plates deteriorate or become plated, you may notice a drop in reactor gas output. The simple test of this is your old bucket, 1-liter bottle and your watch. Just pull your gas line and test the output, then compare this to your previous test results. If there is a significant drop, then it is time for some maintenance. Maintenance is just a system flush and popping in new plates and filters. It doesn’t take too long, but it is wise to give your plates and reaction chamber a thorough scrubbing. Routine maintenance of your water should also be done by simply flushing out your water tank every few months, or when you notice that the water is getting a bit murky in color. Just disconnect the water tank and flush it out. Then refill with water and a bit of acid (or base) and off you go again. Another trick to be able to keep your reactor going all the time is to use only half the cells at one time or to leave one cell manually disconnected. When the cells that you are using start to fade you just attach the wire to the un-used cell(s) and off you go again. This can be done by wiring each cell individually, then connecting these to a separate bus bar having individual flip switches. Copper Bus Wire or Bar OFF ON CELL 1 2 3 4 5 6 If you alternate the switches or turn on 1 and 6 you may still get electrolysis off of the other in between plates due to the ionization of the water, but this will eat up your amps as there will be longer distances between the charged plates. WATER! WATER! WATER? One final comment that applies to all electrolysis systems…..not all water is the same! I recommended using distilled water initially to test your reactor because this is without contaminants. Then you “contaminate” this water with acids, bases or salts, and pollute it further with the degradation of your cathodes. The distilled water is appropriate for initial testing in order to calibrate your system. Then you calibrate your water supply using varying amounts of acid, base or salt, making sure that you record the amounts used in each case. You may like to continue using distilled water if your are diligent in your record keeping, however, most of us are too lazy or too cheap to go out and make or buy distilled water all the time. So what water to use? Tap water? Not such a good idea, because this is usually contaminated with chlorine and other additives that will plate out on your electrodes real quick. But if you must, use ‘hot’ water and let it cool first. This will boil off some of the chlorine and fluorine and other dissolved gases. Most bottled drinking water is also dead water. Try it yourself. Drink a bit and a few minutes later you will feel hot and dry in your mouth, thirsty all over again. This type of water is very bad for health and your reactor too. Magnetized water is also questionable, as well as, other ‘specially treated’ or even mountain spring or artesian spring water in a bottle. By the time these waters get to you, they have lost their potency and energetic benefits. Hey, rich kid, you don’t have to put Perrier in your tank just to impress me! The best water is water that has been naturally energized and is full of minerals. This is natural spring water or mountain runoff, particularly over granite. This water is highly ionized and will enhance the electrolysis process. So go dig a well in the back yard or take a drive to the mountains every time you want to fill up. And for those of you who run out of water in the middle of no-where, just get snockered and piss in your tank. Urine is an electrolyte, as is your blood, but pissing is better than bleeding yourself to death. Right? Experiment with different water and see for yourself what works best in your area. Now, go on to PART 2 and learn how to build other electrolysis reactors and improve on your own system. -----------2---------------------------- Kramer’s Water Car Part 2: Electrolysis by Thomas C. Kramer August 2003 In Part 1 you learned how to make a bubbler and a simple electrolysis cell. That is the starting point in understanding how to construct even more efficient electrolysis units that will be discussed in this Part. In Part 2 we are going to first convert your bubbler into an electrolysis unit, then we will produce a unit that only produces hydrogen gas and finally we will create an “Aussie” cell!
1. Archie Blue’s Bubbler
A New Zealander named Archie Blue figured out that you could modify your standard electrolysis unit by bubbling air through it. He figured that the air would help to dislodge the oxygen and hydrogen gas bubbles from the plates. Good thinking Archie. What he didn’t know at the time was that he would also be making nitrous hydroxide (N(OH)2) too! But what the heck, it worked better than expected. To make an Archie Blue reactor we will go back to our bubbler. In this case we will be creating reactor plates that fit inside the bubbler and alternate these in a stack along the central bubbler tube. I would recommend that the center tube be made out of copper as this will be easy to charge with only one connection, but it can be made of any other metal or plastic and each plate can be wired separately. This is still a plate reactor, thus different metals will be used for the anode and cathode plates as before. The difference is that these will be stacked vertically and will be rounded to fit inside your water filter casing. Each plate will also be perforated with a bunch of holes to let the air bubbles squeeze through as they rise up the cylinder. Electrode Plates Note that the center hole on one set of plates will be larger than the other set. This is because you will be using a plastic spacer to prevent electrical contact with the center tube. Also, the holes that you make in the plates should not all be the same size or location. You can make these holes with several different sized nails. Rough edged holes work better, so don’t go smoothing these off just to look pretty. You may also want to rough sandpaper your plates or scratch them to provide more surface area.
If you are using a center metal pipe, then only the cathode plates have to be separately wired and isolated with a spacer.  If not, then both the cathode and anode plates have to be wired.  When wiring the plates together, use silicone coated wire and solder or epoxy the connections then coat with silicone.  You don’t want your leads to be eaten up.  

When making your plates, you can again use many different types of metals and have fun experimenting. Old tin can lids are easy to get and make with a can opener. You can also use copper plate, tin plate, stainless steel sheet or steel sheet metal, aluminum, or make your own lead plates using the molding method discussed in Part 1. Try old CD’s coated with foils, if you like. The metal plates will be alternately stacked along the center air intake tube, so you will have to make spacers and insulators to slip over this tube. Spacers can be plastic, rubber or metal washers that just slip over the pipe. Insulators would be plastic or rubber tubing that is cut into short ring pieces and slipped over the pipe. You must make sure that the cathode and anode plates don’t touch, thus the cathodes should be carefully isolated, preferably with plastic washers on either side of the center insulator. The distance between the plates is adjusted with the washers. This distance may be a bit more that in your plate reactor as you will need more room for the air to pass through. Try different stacking settings to see what works best for you and the type of plates that you are using. When stacking the plates, you may need a ‘stopper’ at the bottom of the pipe. This can be just about anything that will support the weight of the plate stack, such as a dab of epoxy, solder, a screw, a flaring or a rubber ring. The main idea here is that you will want to take your stack apart and put it back together again quickly and easily. Your plates are going to be eaten up, so maintenance and replacement will be required, thus it is better to plan ahead and make life easier on yourself. This reactor operates in exactly the same way as your initial reactor, so you will hook up your electrical leads the same way. Again, the ‘pot’ allows you to control the gas output. You will also need to add a bit of acid or base to the water intake. And if you want to make this a flow-through system, you will have to add a Water-OUT hole and a pipe to the bottom of the filter canister. Archie used caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) as the electrolyte, but you need a bubbler after the unit to trap any electrolyte that may be sucked through the piping. Better there than in the engine, huh? The difference in this system is that you will be running the mixed gas supply directly into your engine intake manifold. The vacuum created here will suck air through both your electrolysis bubbler and your ‘flame arrestor’ bubbler. The other neat trick is that you can make any number of these units and hook them up in series like that shown above. This will produce progressively more and more gas! A car can thus be run solely on the gas produced from 4-6 of these cells! You can also turn on each cell individually mechanically and/or automatically as you accelerate. This can be done using a sequential switch in line with your ‘pot’. Or if you have an electronic friend, he might be able to design you a simple switching circuit based on the pot voltage output. As the car accelerates it will, of course, require more gas, thus you will have to design your gas production and regulation switching so that you can adjust these factors. When using a single or double cell, you probably won’t be producing enough gas to run your car solely on this fuel, thus the ‘pot’ is used to set your idle as before and then you lean down your petrol intake. This will improve your gas mileage. Keep a proper record of this and your settings. When using multiple cells, always end with a bubbler and you may have to include an air intake control valve to regulate the amount of air actually bubbled through your system. This valve can either be attached at your manifold or at the initial air intake pipe. Usually a simple needle valve will do. It should be noted that nitrous hydroxide is produced when the air (nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen) comes in contact with the electrodes and the ions being produced there. Instead of stripping both hydrogen atoms off the water, only one is removed leaving the OH- ion to combine with the nitrogen. Thus the reaction is: N2 + 2 H20 = 2 N(OH)2 + H2 => N2 + 2 H20 (in combustion) This is an exothermic reaction when combusted under pressure and should give off small quantities of nitrous oxides (NO and NO2). The excess hydrogen and oxygen in the air also recombines to make water and any water vapor expands as steam to further drive the piston. You can also design your system to run in parallel or in series. Adjusting a multi-cell system is a bit more tricky if you are using this as your only fuel source. Each cell will require a certain amount of voltage and amps to drive the electrolysis, thus as you add more cells, more power will be required. Also, there are limits on the suction force off your intake manifold, thus this may limit the number of cells you run in any series. This you will have to bench test when you build your first cell, as the power requirements will vary based on the types of plates you use and their spacing. Bench test your finished unit with volt and amp meters and test the gas output with your 1-liter bottle and bucket, but note that the gas output will be higher under vacuum and you will be producing nitrous hydroxide gas as well when finally hooked up to your engine. Engine settings will be based on first a jacked-up, warmed-up engine test and then on street tests for power settings. If using this mixed gas as your major or sole source of fuel, you may have to adjust the timing of your engine because this fuel burns faster than gasoline. You will know if your timing is too high because you will hear an engine ‘ping’ or you will be getting a ‘backfire’ as you accelerate. Timing Adjustment You may have to adjust the engine timing forward by 5-8 degrees (or more) as the additional hydrogen and nitrous hydroxide gas will cause the gasoline to burn faster and thus sparking before top-dead-center (TDC), as is required with a slower burning fuel, will not be required when hydrogen gas is added. This is controlled at the distributor or electronic ignition system. Bang it with a hammer and give it a twist till the engine runs at its smoothest. Use a sledge hammer…. Fortunately most old cars have an adjustment screw below the distributor that you loosen and then give it a twist. Some cars even have a mark on the front pulley that indicates TDC and you can see this with your naked eye or a timing light! Now if you don’t have very good eyesight or a timing light, take out a plug and stick a long screwdriver into the cylinder. Jack the drive wheels off the ground, put the car in gear and while your wife or girlfriend slowly turns the tire, you feel with the screwdriver where the piston reaches TDC. Now adjust your timing slowly eyeballing the contact points gap or use a feeler gauge. Tighten everything up and replace the cap then start the engine and adjust again with the mixed gas system “on” and the wheels still jacked up off the ground. You will now have to lean down your carburetor’s gasoline intake at the needle valve and maybe even change our carburetor jets. This is where you get better gas mileage. Backfiring: Note that firing at or before TDC may cause the engine to backfire. This is dangerous as it can damage your engine and blow your air filter right off! Be sure to insert safety check-valves on our gas line and use a flame arrestor or a bubbler, and set your timing back as described above. Backfiring can also be effectively controlled in two ways: (1) the addition of water vapor into the fuel intake and (2) increasing engine compression ratios. The addition of water using a ‘bubbler’ has been discussed above and in Part 1. Increasing your compression ratio is done very easily by just using a thinner head gasket. It is probably best to use both these methods, but higher compression ratios seem to work the best at solving persistent backfire problems using mixed gas or hydrogen only. Backfiring can also be caused by induced premature sparking caused by un-shielded spark plug wires running in parallel from your distributor, or by spark plug grounding caused by rust forming channels from the spark plug electrode to the engine block. If either of these happens, separate your cable placement or change to shielded cables and change your plugs to ones with stainless steel electrodes (Champion makes them). The timing is easy to adjust with cars that have a distributor as you just loosen this and turn it a bit. Cars with electronic ignition systems may be a bit more difficult depending on the system. Some automatically adjust. Others, particularly fuel-injected cars, will be a real bitch to convert. Can My Old Battery Electrolysis Unit be CONVERTED? Yes. To make your old battery reactor unit into a bubbler unit you will have to drill a hole in the top and run some plastic tubing down to the bottom and connect an air-stone or holy tube at the bottom of each cell. The gas OUT will then be fed directly to your intake manifold through a bubbler, of course, and not through your air filter as before. This should give you a performance boost as a result of the vacuum and the additional nitrous hydroxide gas being produced. Mixed Gas and Nitrous Hydroxide OUT AIR IN WATER IN Now go back and re-adjust your carburetor and engine settings. Other VARIATIONS: There are several other variations on this fundamental design that you might want to try. These deal primarily with electrode design and may be used in a water filter canister or old battery casing depending on how you want to do it. The principal variation is to use tubing instead of plates. One variation is to use tubes inside of tubes. Another is to use solid rods inside of tubes. Again as we are using standard electrolysis, the tubes and cores will have to be of different metals. You can get different types and sizes of metal tubing at any plumbing or hardware store. Solid rods or bolts can also be found there. Again, I prefer stainless steel for the anode and lead rods for the cathode, but long iron bolts will also work just fine. The construction of a tube electrode is simple. You just slip one tube over the other and insert some plastic spacers so that they don’t touch each other. Then wire one positive and the other negative. Taaa Daaa! The trick is to make a bunch of these tube electrodes and then bundle them together so that they fit into your water filter canister or battery casing. This may require a top and bottom bracket to hold the tubes in place, like the old combs suggested in Part 1. The gaps should be at least 1.5 mm (3/8”). Tube electrodes create an interesting effect in lifting water through the tube. This enhances electrolyte circulation and the cleaning of the electrodes while in use. This effect can be further enhanced by spiraling the water through the tubes by using your spacers at an angle. This will speed up the flow even more. But be sure to leave enough room around the outside of the cell so that the water can circulate back down to the bottom of the cell. This is a pumping action used in hydraulic water lifting devices and it can move large volumes of water electrolytes. The important point of a tube electrode design is that you should be able to easily replace the cathode (center tube or rod). Your design should be such that you can just pull out the old tube or rod and insert a new one with very little muss or fuss. I prefer iron bolts or threaded rods as these can be screwed through a simple metal plate for easy positioning. But you can also use lead fishing weights on a stainless steel wire provided you can tighten the line down. (So that’s what you do with old guitar strings.) Or use lead strips, the kind electricians sometimes use to tie down wires. These lead strips can also be rolled a bit down the center to create a cheap rod and make them much stiffer.
Tube & Bolt Design Water Filter Bubbler Reactor




    Air IN						    Gas OUT



	           Metal Plate

		          Iron Bolt
									Spacers
		Stainless Steel
		     Tubing


 
		          Old Comb

See…..it is that easy. The top metal plate must also have holes in it to let the gas and air through, but it will act as a damper plate to prevent the electrolyte from splashing around while driving. You can also use a threaded pipe for the air intake and then use a top and bottom plate to sandwich the tubes into place with a nut at the top and bottom of the pipe. This will keep the whole assembly from moving around but you will have to drill some holes in the top of the tubing to let the gas out and put a non-conductive washer or rubber gasket at the top. The bottom plate will also have to have holes drilled so that water and air bubbles can enter the tubing. You will also have to drill two small holes in the water filter cap to run your electrode wires. These will be sealed with epoxy or silicone. Use wire connectors inside the cell so that you can easily pull things apart when cleaning or replacing electrodes. The whole assembly should mount to the water filter cap through the intake tube, preferably through a screw in fitting. This allows the canister to just be screwed on and off for cleaning. We will be coming back to tube reactors later, so don’t just toss this idea away. Another variation is to make your Bubbler/Reactor into a plate reactor. Instead of tubing you go back to plates. These are hooked up just like in your battery reactor. Nothing new here except that some plates may be narrower because of the round shape of your water canister. Finally, one of the neat things about using a plastic water canister is that you can SEE things happening…..well, if you did it right. Watch to see what happens when you bench test a unit and then again when it is running with the engine on. The vacuum creates a whole lot of difference. 2. Carl Cella’s Hydrogen Unit This is a variation of the conventional electrolysis design that collects only the hydrogen and vents off or re-circulates the oxygen back to the water tank where it is vented to the atmosphere. The hydrogen gas is then fed into an ordinary LNG gas conversion kit at the carburetor.


 									Pressure Gauge
				       Solenoid Valve
                                  Check Valve

		               IRON
			   PIPE	        H2		      H2		    Negative -
          Positive +	or Bolt		       Insulators		    Throttle (Pot)
          Casing
Separate Lid	
						O2
     Water
										      Water										       + O2		       Stainless						                    Out
	Stainless	Steel			Holes
	Steel		Liner
	Casing
		            							      Drain
		        Steel-wool							

Rubber Mountings
A potentiometer (pot/variable resistor) placed at the throttle linkage can control the voltage to the electrodes, but this unit is usually run wide open all the time. This pot creates a variable voltage in the reaction chamber that releases controlled amounts of gas on demand. This control circuit allows adjustments to be made for any type of car. Alternatively, you can produce gas at maximum levels constantly but install a pressure switch on the gas line that will automatically switch off the circuit at a high pressure setting and switch the cell back on at a low pressure setting. Gas flow to the engine is controlled by a standard propane/LNG gas regulator unit that attaches to your carburetor. The hydrogen gas feed is just connected to this device. The use of multiple reactor tubes is recommended due to eventual plating caused by water impurities. A simple flip switch on the dashboard is used to turn on a second or third cell and turn off the cell that needs cleaning. Solenoid valves turn on the feed line of the cell in operation and off all other cells. You could also use a 4-way old scavenged fan switch as your dash controllers. You might even be able to salvage the 0-1-2-3 mounting as well. Use “0” as your ‘kill’ switch. Carl Cella uses a stainless steel pipe with only 3 iron bolt electrodes as his electrolysis chamber, with only 1-2 cells running at any one time.
Carl Cella’s Design

							     Pressure Gauge

		    Solenoid Valves
Negative Electrode Switches                      Tee				Dash
	        Iron Bolts							Switches
      Check Valves


										    Pot
     Water IN									OUT


Stainless 
Steel Casing
& End Plates

      Bolts
       Rubber Mounts
				    Casing Charged Positive  		

	
This reactor unit is designed as a LOW pressure unit, thus all through reactor connections must be properly sealed, usually welded, and be able to withstand up to 10-15 psi pressure or more. A rubber gasket or silicon sealant should do for end plates and/or tops. Your pressure switch will keep the pressure usually under 5-10 psi (or much less), but it is good to build in a safety margin and even a pressure release plug (a cork in a hole) or pressure relief valve (available at most plumbing stores). This reactor will normally be set to operate at a lower pressure, but pressure relief valves should be installed on the main gas line and should be vented to the atmosphere at a location where you cannot possibly burn up your car (a tube running into your exhaust for example). Oxygen produced will be carried back to the water tank where it will naturally come out of solution and be vented to the atmosphere. A stainless steel scouring pad may also be attached to the tank wall near the return pipe outlet to increase oxygen release. Note that the entire casing is charged POSITIVE (+) from the battery, thus the casing must have insulated mountings and not come in contact with the car body. A wire is connected to one of the end (or top) plate bolts. This wire is connected to the positive ignition key bus with a 15-20 amp fuse. The hydrogen cells (iron bolts) are charged NEGATIVE (-) and have to be isolated from the casing by using PVC, nylon or rubber liners through which the iron bolts or pipe or other electrode metals are inserted. This has to be properly sealed with silicone, epoxy glue or other non-conductive sealant or be a threaded nylon sleeve (preferred). The negative electrodes run straight down through a ‘T’ fitting. Mounted to the side of the tee is a one-way check valve to prevent gas from other ‘on’ cells from flowing back into the reaction chamber. These check valves are also used to prevent backfiring from entering the reaction chamber. The negative electrodes are switched on/off manually from the dashboard switches. These switches can be attached to the ‘pot’ on the throttle linkage as described before BUT this pot now is NEGATIVE charged (wired from the negative pole of the battery). Also shown are solenoid valves that are activated by the dashboard switches. These can be placed before or after the check valves and are used to open or close each cell, again to prevent backflow of gas or electrolyte from other open cells. As this is a pressure system, it will be best to mount a pressure gauge on the dashboard from the gas line before it is linked to the LNG gas regulator unit. This will give you a visual indicator that gas is being produced at pressure, and when you see pressure starting to build, only then can you start the engine. The gas line is then connected to a bubbler just before the LNG gas regulator as a backfire arrestor and to add a bit of water vapor. The LNG gas regulator is a low-pressure unit that works just like a scuba regulator. When the engine sucks air in, the regulator opens and releases the gas. The more suction the more gas released. This is just a simple spring valve arrangement, but you do have to adjust the gas flow to the air/gas mix going into the engine. Generally, the amount of hydrogen gas to air ratio is less than 5% (1:20) to make your engine run, thus you don’t need to make a lot of gas, particularly if you are also injecting water vapor. But the gas does have to be fed to the regulator at pressure in order for it to work properly. Variations in design of the hydrogen electrode can be made as previously discussed. The only thing that you have to make sure of is that this electrode doesn’t touch the (+) casing and that you have sufficient surface area. This electrode should also be fairly close to but not touching the positive (+) electrode pipe to allow for better conductance. Different metals used as electrodes will have different spacing requirements for maximum gas output, so experiment. Best results are usually obtained with a spacing of 1-2 millimeters (3/8”). As the water is constantly circulated through the chamber it will act as a coolant and will remove both oxygen and some precipitates caused by impurities in the water and the dissolving electrode. These will be returned to the water tank where the oxygen will vent off to the atmosphere and the water impurities will settle to the bottom of the tank. A small 12V DC pump is required to maintain water electrolyte circulation. This can be an ordinary electric fuel pump or aquarium pump provided that the pump can operate at a higher water pressure needed because the cell is now pressurized. This pressure is maintained also by a pressure relief valve on the water OUT line that only lets water out when a predetermined pressure in the cell is reached. A check valve is also required on the water IN side to prevent back-pressure on the pump when the system is turned off. Care must be taken to ensure that the water pump is not pressurizing the cell before the gas is produced as this might cause water to be pumped through the gas lines. The gas system must be turned on first to build up pressure, then only the water pump can be activated. This can be done with a pressure switch on the gas line that turns the pump ‘on’ only after gas pressure is detected at a pre-set level and ‘off’ if below such level. Excessive gas pressure due to over-production can also force the water out of the reaction chamber and back into the main water tank. The amount of water left in the chamber will thus be determined by the height of the water OUT tube inside the chamber. If this height is reach, then excess gas will be blown into your main water tank and be vented through your filler tube to the atmosphere. Now worry, but a waste of gas. Attached to the water pump should be a water filter to filter out precipitates and other water impurities in tap water. Standard household water filters are suitable with changeable cartridges. The cartridges will only require very occasional changing, but should be checked and possibly changed every time a cell requires cleaning due to plating. Depending on what material your electrodes are made out of may determine water color as these chemicals become dissolved into solution. Some people wondered about Dingle’s ‘blue water’ but if you look at his pictures you see ‘copper’ tubing being used as electrodes-cum-bubblers. An ionized form of copper turns blue. Cella uses acid as his electrolyte, and if I remember right, it was white vinegar or something from Napa Valley (He lives in California). If a cell dies, turn it off and switch on the next one. Then when you have the time, open up the reactor and check your electrodes, brushing them off with a wire brush or course sand paper. Do the same for the housing and shake out and rinse any scouring pads you dropped in there. If an electrode has been eaten up badly, replace it. And if you have too much sediment build-up in your chamber, check your water tank too and flush it if necessary. No point in wasting a lot of money on new filters if you can solve the problem with a quick flush. The above system should draw about 5-10 amps which is well within the range of most car alternators, but run it with the lights, wipers, heater/aircon “on” to see if you really have a big enough alternator or need a second battery as back-up when running at night in the rain. An interesting enhancement to this system is the addition of an ultrasonic generator to the casing, particularly one in the 40-50 KHz range as this will ‘shake’ the gases off their electrodes much faster. If you can’t get your hands on a ultrasonic generator or circuit, try some old speakers or attach your car’s ignition coil to the casing (it produces ultrasonic vibrations!). The faster you get the bubbles off the electrodes the better. Engine Settings: There are 2-ways to use the hydrogen gas produced in the simple reactor shown here in any internal combustion engine: firstly as an ‘added fuel’ to increase gas mileage, or secondly as the ‘only fuel’. Hydrogen burns faster and hotter than gasoline and less is generally needed to get an internal combustion engine to work.
(1) Added Fuel:

As an “added fuel” you simply have to drill a hole in your air filter and attach your hydrogen gas feed there. The gas will be sucked into your carburetor together with the air. This is a simple way of doing it and it will double your present gas mileage. This approach may require a regulator valve to control the flow of the gas. Some experimenters have also used small air pumps to suck the gas off the reaction chamber and blow it into the air filter chamber using a ‘bubbler’ approach previously discussed. Others run the hydrogen line directly into the intake manifold, but care must be taken here as the vacuum off the manifold can suck your gas and water right into the engine. Systems that use manifold feeds must be directly attached to a ‘bubbler’ or ‘bubbler-electrolysis unit’ such as Archie Blue’s system. The air filter hole method is the simplest delivery system that I have seen and it doesn’t require any further modifications to an existing engine. The amount of gas produce can be controlled by the voltage regulator pot on the throttle linkage, but you will have to adjust the gasoline intake at the needle valve and the pot while the engine is running to get best performance. Hydrogen gas makes up only about 4% of the air intake into the engine to give a bang equivalent to gasoline (Brown’s gas is only about 1%) thus you adjust your gas intake to the air intake based on actual reactor maximum production. A 50:50 hydrogen-gasoline mix would thus only require 2% gas production. Your engine should work well even on a 90:10 gas/fuel mix ratio.
(2) Hydrogen Fuel Only

If hydrogen gas is to be used as your ‘only fuel’ you will need to make some further adjustments to your engine and exhaust system due to the probability of “rust”. Gasoline has additives that retard combustion and lubricate the combustion chamber and exhaust system. Hydrogen gas does not. You burn hydrogen gas, you get water….hot water vapor! Rust proofing your combustion system involves replacing parts with stainless steel parts (or ceramics). First to go will be the exhaust pipe and silencers. Next are the valves and valve guides, and since you have the heads off, you might as well paint the insides of the headers and exhaust ports with a ceramic coating or glaze them on with a blowtorch. (And put the heads back on with a thinner gasket!) If you use the car regularly, you won’t have to worry about the pistons, rings and sleeves being replaced with stainless steel as their movement will keep these surfaces clean, however, if you let the car sit for days, this might be a problem and the engine could jam….then you will have to change them. If you know that you are not going to use your car for some time, just leave the gasoline system connected and switch it on for a few minutes to lubricate the chamber or squirt a bit of oil down the carburetor before shutting down for a rest. As described above, the hydrogen gas is supplied to a normal off-the-shelf gas conversion kit used for propane/LNG conversions. This gas regulator attaches to your carburetor and operates much in the same way as the system above to pre-mix gas and air (from an air filter) straight into the carburetor. The principal difference is that it ‘regulates’ the flow of low-pressure gas to match engine requirements. As hydrogen gas is lighter and more explosive than propane or LNG, you will have to reset the regulator by leaning it down a bit. Also, as described above, the engine timing will have to be adjusted even further forward to eliminate engine ‘ping’ caused by the faster detonation of the hydrogen gas. And you will most likely get better results with a higher compression ratio and water vapor addition. The “Aussie” Cell! So far we have been focusing on normal electrolysis to produce hydrogen, oxygen and nitrous hydroxide gases using two different metals for the electrodes. What happens if the electrodes are the same metal? Well, guys Down-Under in Aussieland have been making cells out of 316 stainless steel only for both the anode and cathode for some time now. This is sort of a Blue/Cella hybrid system that focuses on producing nitrous hydroxide as the main fuel. The cell runs on a pressure vacuum off the intake manifold but only a little bit of air is allowed in at a time so as to maintain a vacuum in the reaction chamber that produces the nitrous hydroxide, hydrogen and water vapor. The basic construction is that of a bubbler reactor of either the water filter type or battery casing type, but the electrodes are both made out of stainless steel. You can even use a Cella type pipe charged positive (+) and an inner pipe as the cathode (-). Air is trickled in through a needle valve at one end and the nitrous hydroxide gas is sucked into your manifold from your gas feed line. You can also run a tube system variation where you wrap the anode with insulated copper wire to create an electromagnet. The number of windings determines the strength of the electromagnet, but this depends on what you want to experiment with and your available size and length of insulated wire. Make sure that the magnetic coils don’t short out in the water. Insulate then right through the casing, or in a pipe unit, just wrap the coils around the outside of the whole unit!
  Needle Valve        To Manifold                      _ 	         +	              N(OH)2	    






	  Pipe or Tube Electrolyzer		Electromagnet

For some reason the electromagnetic field results in up to 10 times more gas output! This obviously has a polarizing effect on the water molecules, particularly the OH- and H+ ions, forcing them in opposite directions inside the reactor chamber. There are different types of electromagnets based on the way the wires are wound and the number of windings. Obviously, the stronger that you make your electromagnet, the stronger will be the polarizing field that it creates. Experiment. The low-pressure pull from the manifold vacuum thus draws the nitrogen gas directly into the chamber and through a concentration of hydroxide ions at one end of the electromagnetic field, thus forming the nitrous hydroxide more easily. This unit variation uses only plain water (NO electrolyte acid or base is added), but with a small pinch of rock salt. Ground or mineral water should work fine all by itself. You need some mineral ions in the water to cause the polarization needed in the water molecules, that’s all. To test your water you can take an ordinary light bulb with a socket. From your plug/switch, run one wire into a glass of “your” water and then from the light socket, cut a short wire and run the other one back to the plug. Now dip the short wire into the water (making sure you are properly insulated yourself) and if the light lights up brightly, you have some really good water. If not, add a bit more mineral salts and try again. The water in the cell may take a few days to fully mineralize and for the water to polarize itself properly for maximum gas production, so you may want to bench test your unit for a few days using a small vacuum pump (your wife’s vacuum cleaner? Oh yeah!) I haven’t tried it yet, but one of those small car vacuums may make a very interesting flamethrower! Or blow the gas into a big ole pile sealed at one end and you got yourself a flamin’ cannon! Woah! What am I thinking? This is dangerous stuff. Be sure not to try these things and always test your gas in a well-ventilated area, preferably outdoors. Safety first….OK! Joe’s Cells and Brown’s Gas Another Aussie by the name of Joe Zella uses a pipe reactor in which 4 pipes are inserted one inside the other, charging the inner most and outer pipes POSITIVE and the other inside pipes NEGATIVE.

This cell uses stainless steel pipes and plain (mineralized) water and apparently does all kinds of interesting things. To me it looks like a version of the Aussie Cell noted above and produces nitrous hydroxide. Wrap the outer pipe with an electromagnet and you should get even better performance. Another alternative is to run the gases produced through an electromagnetic coil either inside the chamber at the top where the gases are coming out or wrapped around the gas feed line. This apparently will have an effect on the hydrogen atoms and the way in which the electrons spin. This magnetic field apparently converts normal hydrogen gas (orthohydrogen) into abnormal (parahydrogen) gas, which burns slower and thus will affect your engine timing. No big deal, but it is worth some experimentation. Brown’s Gas is basically mono-atomic hydrogen (H+) and oxygen gas (O-) that hasn’t recombined to form H2 and O2. This results in a greater actual gas volume and a bigger bang (less gas used), because the hydrogen and oxygen atoms don’t have to be separated first to form water on combustion. Making Brown’s gas, however, generally requires lots more energy to keep the gases in a mono-atomic state usually by very high voltage and strong electromagnetic fields. And then the gas lasts only a short time, as the natural reactive affinity of these ions will cause them to recombine. I haven’t seen a Brown’s Gas reactor yet that can fit in an engine compartment or one that can run off your car’s battery, so though there are some advantages, this isn’t a practical alternative yet. If you want to play with ignitions coils and electromagnets on your gas line, let me know the results. Daniel Dingle’s Water Car: This section would not be complete without a mention of ole Daniel Dingle and his inventions. Ole Dan has been having fun showing off confusing examples of basically the same kind of cells that I have described in Parts 1 and 2. He has used a number of different cell techniques and mixed and matched as I have described above, and then added bits and pieces that don’t do anything but add confusion to anyone looking at his operating units. Cleaver boy. His units are fundamentally based on the old battery casing approach that I have described, but he is using each cell differently. For example, one cell is a bubbler only, another produces nitrous hydroxide and is fed into the intake manifold, and another is just normal caustic soda electrolysis cell and is fed into the carburetor. Now stick an ignition coil or speaker on the side of the casing for confusion and run tubing every which way and you got a Ding-Dong-Dingle! Hey, it works! So don’t knock it too much. But it isn’t worth a patent or millions in royalties. And it would be better if he just opened up and came clean with what he is experimenting with. I see no mysteries…..just someone trying to be too cleaver. Now for PLAN 3! A Saltwater Cell!
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Kramer’s Water Car - Plan 3:
A SALTWATER CELL
By Thomas C. Kramer August 2003 For those of you who are not familiar with the patents of Francisco Pacheco, you should do some research. Francisco has a very interesting approach to hydrogen production, which is worthy of additional research and review. Basically he has combined a voltaic cell with an electrolysis cell. A voltaic cell is one that produces electricity, that is, a battery! This voltage is accomplished through the chemical degradation of an electrode (cathode -) in an electrolyte solution, in this case….magnesium electrodes in salt water. In this design the anode (+) is stainless steel 316. The magnesium in this voltaic cell actually oxidizes from the pure metal to magnesium oxide that just precipitates out as sludge at the bottom of the cell unless otherwise flushed and filtered out, as is done later. This is similar to what happens in a normal lead-acid battery where the lead eventually precipitates out as oxides and sulfides causing the cell to short and cease functioning because of the sludge that settles to the bottom of the casing. Francisco is just making a magnesium battery first. When the magnesium reacts with salt water the hydrogen is released and the magnesium oxidizes. Taa Daa! Hydrogen gas! This reaction, however, creates heat and makes the electrolyte solution progressively basic (excess OH- ions). If the cell gets too hot the reaction slows down and excess water vapor is produced. No good. So the system requires a pump and a heat exchanger, that is, some looped tubing (finned if possible) or a small radiator, perhaps with a fan, to keep the electrolyte solution cool. Just running a line from the reactor in the engine compartment to a water tank in the trunk, should cool things down enough. The amount of voltage (and hydrogen gas) produced is controlled by a variable resistor (potentiometer or ‘pot’). This is connected between the cathode and anode plates. And as before, the pot can be connected to your throttle linkage. An ‘on/off’ switch should also be connected either before or after your pot to control the reactor. This switch is NOT connected to your car ignition or battery system, but is just an in-line switch. Simply, you do not want current from your battery to mix with the current generated from the voltaic cell. You can hook-up a solenoid switch from your ignition that will activate this cell switch or use a dash mounted separate switch. Pacheco found out through prolonged usage that his voltaic cell just didn’t work. It would heat up and loose performance. The sludge would build up and short the reaction. And the electrolyte would become progressively basic further retarding the reaction. All no good. His solution was quite simple and productive. He added an electrolysis cell and a pump and a filter. The electrolysis cell neutralized the base in the electrolyte solution and the pump and the filter effectively took out the precipitates, while running the electrolyte through a cooling system. This is well thought out. But the really interesting thought came when he realized that the voltaic cells produced enough power to run his pump AND his electrolysis cell too! Hey, why wastes power. The voltaic cell produces hydrogen gas and the electrolysis cell produces both hydrogen and oxygen. His one little mistake is that he vented off the oxygen to the atmosphere, instead of running it into the engine. We know better. How to Build a Pacheco Cell: We have already built one. Our old battery cell design is already set up to be modified into a Pacheco Cell. Mixed Gas Old Battery Electrolysis Unit Mixed Gas Line to Carburetor Water Water IN OUT Pump Filter Note the last cell in the battery is separated by a wall that is not perforated, (a solid wall except for a hole along the bottom). This is the electrolysis cell and is wired separately for the cathode and anode. As noted above, the cathodes in the voltaic cell are magnesium plates or rods. The anodes are stainless steel. Pacheco, however, uses either carbon or aluminum plates for both the cathode and anode in the electrolysis cell. These electrodes are separated by a plastic wall. Some experimentation may be done with other plates for the electrolysis unit. An alternative is to use both an old battery unit as the voltaic cell and connect this to a water filter electrolysis unit as was designed before. And for those of you who have followed Daniel Dingle’s various confusing presentations, at one time he claimed to use salt water and pictures show a pipe going from some of his reactor cells to the carburetor and another reactor cell pipe going to the intake manifold. Hmmm. Hydrogen into the carburetor and a mixed gas bubbler reactor into the manifold, and all from an old battery casing. As mentioned above, Pacheco’s unique realization was that he could create enough power with his voltaic cell to power the electrolysis AND a small pump to circulate the electrolyte solution. The amount of the electrical current produced was controlled by the ‘pot’, which also controlled the amount of electrolysis AND the speed of the pump. This is a nice neat closed loop system. Switch Throttle POT (variable resistor) Voltaic Cell Electrolysis Cell Pump This design balances the electrolyte solution by converting the excessive OH- using the electrolysis cell into hydrogen and oxygen. Now what would happen if you used this power from the voltaic unit to run some electromagnetic coils in either the voltaic cells or electrolysis cells or even coiled around the gas pipelines? Parahydrogen perhaps? Measurements will have to be taken to see just how much power is generated by the voltaic unit and the actual resistance in the wiring that you may use in order to balance the electrolysis cell operation and still be able to run the pump. You may find that the pump may be easier to run separately from the car battery if there is not enough power generated by the voltaic cell. The only problem that you will probably run into is the supply of magnesium plates. These may be difficult to find and may be a bit expensive. Also, if these units ever get into commercial production, you will want to save your filters and magnesium oxide precipitates, as these can be recycled.

Other Saltwater Cells: Juan Carlos Aguero filed a European patent application (no. 90306988.8) in 1990 for a saltwater cell using carbon or carbon and iron electrodes. His approach also works but it uses lots of amps (80) and volts (75-100), will eat up the iron electrode and produces sodium hydroxide and chlorine gases. Your alternator puts out 12 volts and 40 amps. The electrode sludge and replacement was not properly addressed. And the salt gases vented to the atmosphere are highly corrosive and poisonous! This is not such a good approach. Juan Carlos, however, did have some good ideas concerning (1) a buffer gas storage container, (2) a fuel heater system, and (3) a bubbler steam modification unit. Basically, he realized the importance of delivering more water vapor to the engine to retard the combustion by generating steam and conditioning this with the fuel mix. He accomplished this by just wrapping tubing around the exhaust pipe and using the heat generated to better vaporize the fuel and water vapor mix entering the engine. He also used a ‘pulsed’ DC circuit to stimulate his electrodes and this would account for the amplification to higher volts and allow for a throttle pot to control the reaction. His electrode arrangement, however, would draw too many amps to be practical in a normal car with a small alternator. Saltwater is a natural electrolyte solution of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) (table salt). The concentration of salt can thus be varied and this can affect the amount of hydrogen gas produced. But if you also produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide gases, you can eat up your engine pretty quick, thus ALWAYS USE A BUBBLER on your fuel intake line and change this water bath periodically. Mineral salts can also be used in these cells, but the heavier minerals may precipitate out of solution. Pacheco noted that the prolonged use of the saltwater voltaic cell resulted in increased levels of hydroxide (OH-) and specifically sodium hydroxide (lye), which can be very corrosive. This increase in sodium hydroxide will progressively reduce the efficiency of the cell as less electrolyte solution becomes available. To prevent this, he electrolyzed the hydroxide into hydrogen and oxygen, thus restoring the electrolyte to its maximum performance condition. Juan Carlos did not address this issue and only assumed that he could vent off the sodium hydroxide and chlorine as exhausted gases. That is not a good idea for one, and separating these gases from the hydrogen produced would be difficult, even with a membrane filter. Running the mixed gas through the bubbler will create saltwater there too, which will eventually find its way into the engine. Salt in any engine is bad news! Hot salty steam is even worse!

Conclusions: A little bit of salt in almost any electrolyte solution is usually beneficial to the reaction. Concentrated saltwater or sea water electrolyte solutions, however, can lead to corrosive problems and thus the use of stainless steel or plastic containment reactors. Pacheco’s design coupled with a bubbler on the fuel line is a very good idea. The only problem is in the cost and availability of magnesium plates or rods. A marriage of Pacheco’s design with Aguero’s gas storage and water vaporizing units is an even better approach, particularly since gas production is not instantaneous to throttle demand. Adding magnetic coils to these combined designs should also increase performance due to the polarizing effect of the electromagnetic fields on the electrolyte solution. Pacheco’s use of a voltaic cell to generate hydrogen gas only can be modified using other plate materials as well. This is only a battery, thus you may be able to use those old lead plates that you removed from your battery casing here as well. You will just be making a ‘saltwater battery’ and flushing it out regularly. You can also substitute the plates for stainless steel tubes and lead rods, perhaps adding a bit more lye (NaOH) to stimulate the reaction, but again using this reaction as a battery to run a small electrolysis cell to adjust the electrolyte solution. Other metals will react differently in a saltwater voltaic or electrolysis cell. Magnesium is more highly reactive than most and thus should work well, but it is fun to experiment, thus I would recommend using what you have as see how it works. In this reactor you are producing primarily hydrogen gas, thus this fuel should be run through a gas regulator before your carburetor. If your gas production is small (due to a small reactor design or use of different plates) then you can feed this into the intake manifold direct as a fuel booster. The vacuum created should draw the fuel through a bubbler and create a low pressure within the reactor chamber, improving performance. You will also have to have a regulated air intake into the chamber and this may cause the production of small quantities of nitrous oxides or nitrous hydroxides, which will also burn well in your engine. Saltwater electrolysis is thus worth a try using the modifications suggested above. Even dropping a few grains of salt into your normal electrolysis unit should help. Try it and see!
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An Oscillating Frequency Reactor
By Thomas c. Kramer August 2003 A normal electrolysis system requires lots of power (amps) and produces heat. It also requires a catalyst or different metals and an acid or base electrolyte solution. A normal system tends to eat up electrodes, polluting the water used and plating out the reaction chamber and electrodes. This is the old tried and tested way that works. Now along came Stanley Meyer who took a different approach by oscillating the frequency applied to two electrodes at about 42.8 KHz, a frequency at which water resonates (vibrates itself) to the point of breaking apart. This requires a pulsed high voltage charge at milliamp power. This is accomplished with a simple electronic circuit that controls the voltage, the pulse frequency (Hertz) and the length of the pulses or pause between pulses (pulse width modulation or ‘PWM’). This is basically the same type of circuit used in those electronic exerciser devices that give you those really great ‘abs’ that you always wanted or strengthens your eyes oogling at the models electronically flexing their big ‘pec’s’. The better exercise boxes have dials that allow you to dial up the ‘reps’ that you really need…..right? One controls the level of shock (voltage), another the pause between stimulating muscle contractions and another the type of wave form between muscle shocks. Now drop the electrode pads in a jar of water and see what happens. Probably nothing because you are not adjusted to the resonance frequency of the water! If you can fiddle with the frequency adjustment, then maybe you have got yourself a ready-made electrolysis unit…..but don’t use it on yourself! Gas bubbles in your blood stream are not very healthy! For those of us ooglers who don’t want to afford an electronic exerciser, we will just have to build our own oscillating frequency generator. The first thing you do is make friends with someone who knows something about electronics. The TV repairman is a good start or go down to your local high school auto shop class, college or tech school and con the teachers and students into making a unit for you as a ‘class project’! Hey, they might even pay for the parts and make one for themselves too! The next thing you do is download all the circuit diagrams you can find on the Internet for such circuits. You don’t have to know what they mean, just get them. Various Internet groups have file samples, Stan Meyer’s patents are posted, as are Xogen’s (Chamber’s) patents, Ma’at and ‘groups.yahoo.com/watercar/’ and several others. I even found some in German and Spanish. Now, give these circuit diagrams to your electronics expert. He will be able to understand them. Well, not really. There is a propensity in the electronics community not to divulge everything. They always leave out key components, put in the wrong components and generally give you wrong information. They call this a “learning experience” and is their sick way of buggering up others in the profession. These guys are related to those that write software viruses. Anyhow, be fair warned that the circuit diagrams that you get probably won’t work. Or if they do, they might not work the way you need them to. They may not generate the correct frequency range, pulse width, or voltage. And hey, you can blow the whole circuit with excess amps! Melting wires is a lot of fun too! So seek out someone who knows electronics, tell them what you want to accomplish and then hand them the circuit diagrams that don’t work and tell them that! Then walk away. Your electronics expert likes a challenge and they all take time to think through the problem, consult their manuals, and come up with a totally new approach to the problem that probably won’t work either. But it is better to let them blow up their circuit boards and components than ignite you or your car. I’ve tossed this circuit problem out to the electrical engineering department at a local university, so I will let them have their students crack their heads on this problem for me. When I have circuits that work and that you can build easily yourself, I will post them up and modify this part of this report. The component parts are all cheap. But if you buy a ready-made unit, it will cost you a bomb. This is a do-it-yourself report, so forget the ready-made black boxes. Electronics experts all think that they can get rich quick from black box deals, so be warned. Also be forewarned that the components that you buy from your local electronics shop are most likely REJECTS. All the good stuff goes to the big boys that buy in volume and to specifications. What’s left over or gets tossed out ends up at your electronic shop. No two components rated the same are actually the ‘same’. There is always a margin of error built into these components, so try to find those that have the highest ratings (like gold bands on resistors) or test them before you buy. Power transistors are famous for being not what they say they are. IC’s are also often rejects that may or may not function. Use a socket for all IC’s so you can pull them out and swap them easily. Capacitors and diodes are usually quite reliable. But a bad capacitor can really blow! Since the components can vary considerably, building 2 identical circuit boards that work the same is often a dream come true. This is where you need some proper test equipment. And since you can’t afford any, you make friends with someone who has, OK! The test equipment allows you to monitor what is going on onboard the circuit board. Here we will be testing for pulse width and height (amplitude), wave form, frequency, and voltage at various points on the board. Note that all the circuit diagrams you get don’t have this information or where to stick your probes to find out. Basically you will be controlling the voltage on the board with capacitors and resistors that function to chop off excess voltage surges to ground. If these aren’t working properly in the specified ranges, you are screwed from the beginning. Variable resistors are also used to chop frequencies or control timing (pulse duration). These give you a little bit more freedom to fiddle, but you need an oscilloscope to see what you are doing. And what is the difference between a P-N-P and a N-P-N transistor? Hmmmm. But get the wrong type and you blow your board.

The Circuits: Direct current (DC) electrical circuits are quite simple to understand if you think of them like water flowing through a pipe. Water goes in one end at pressure from a pump (amps) and then flows through various valves, t-junctions, past pressure relief valves, is squeezed or expanded, it spins rotors or goes through a heat exchanger and then flows back into the storage tank for another go round. Electrical circuits operate in the same way. These electronic circuits are really quite simple but you have to know what you are looking at in order to understand what is going on. The voltage is stepped up usually by a series of transistors (they have 3-legs and the power ones have a metal plate behind called a ‘heat sink’ because they get hot, daaa). The pulse is controlled by a timer chip, usually numbered xx555 or thereabouts (but there are others too). The frequency oscillator, which vibrates the electrical current, is another IC chip, usually a quartz crystal, but this can be done with other capacitor circuits like the 555 chips. Diodes are one-way only valves. Resistors are street demonstrators that obstruct electronic traffic. Capacitors are guys that hold in farts (electric charges) until they really blow. You are interested in doing three things to your water. First you want to vibrate it at the correct frequencies. Secondly, you need to do this with enough voltage that the reaction will work to your command. Thirdly, you have to time this so that you don’t fry the system, but get just close enough so that you maximize the reaction without shorting everything out. All three of these circuits (voltage, timing and frequency) are controlled by variable resistors (control valves called potentiometers or “pots”, remember!). These pots are adjusted until you get a frothy gas release in the reaction chamber when the frequency reaches 40-50 KHz (or other harmonics). The circuits have a fuse and are switched on/off with the ignition key (or a switch on bench-top trials) using a 12-volt battery as a power source. The voltage pot is the one you connected to your throttle linkage.

Pulsing: The reason the circuit is pulsed is because you don’t want to create a spark jumping across the electrodes, as this will short out the system. You only want to shake up the water molecules long enough so that they fall apart. If you shake them at the right frequency in short bursts you prevent the sparking but allow disassociation to occur. And this occurs in the water between the electrodes and not ‘on’ the electrodes themselves, thus preventing degradation of the electrodes and allows the use of electrodes made of the same material (316 stainless steel). There are a number of different types of pulses that can be created (sine, pseudo-sine, square, triangular, saw-tooth waves, etc.), but the best results come from digitally produced square waves with the pulse width or duration controlled by a variable resistor somewhere in the 90:10 ratio of ‘on/off’ cycle, which is called the “duty cycle”. In actual fact, you may start out with a nice sine or square wave, but when you add water to your cell EVERYTING CHANGES. This is due to the fact that water acts as a capacitor and bubbles cause the media itself to vary in density. Testing the wave in the water at or between the electrodes will thus result in a variable reading and a modified waveform. The ‘duty cycle’ is just an electronic switch that turns the power “on” for a little while, then automatically turns it “off” for a shorter period, then back “on” again….. The 555 timer is used to, gosh, ‘time’ the switch. If you have a nervous twitch you might want to do the switching yourself, but constantly flicking a switch while you are driving is a bit impractical. Electronic switches are faster and more reliable and by adjusting the pot we can adjust the ‘on/off’ cycle more accurately.

Frequency Control Frequency is measured in ‘hertz’ (Hz) and is the number of oscillations or vibrations an electrical wave has over a period of time usually measured in cycles per second. Your brain when awake works at about 8-30 hertz. Your body vibrates at around 100 hertz. Electrical power is generated at 50-60 hertz. Radio waves are in the kilohertz range. Television works in the UHF and VHF bands. The earth vibrates at about 6-7 hertz. HYDROGEN VIBRATES AROUND 8 HERTZ (OR HARMONICS THEREOF). Virtually everything vibrates at a particular frequency depending upon its surrounding conditions. These surrounding conditions can be influenced by temperature, atmospheric pressure, sound, light, magnetic, electrical or electronic stimulation and even ‘thought waves’. What we are trying to accomplish is to find the appropriate frequency that will vibrate water molecules to the point that they fall apart. This happens at several different frequencies, some called ‘harmonics’. The most productive frequency is around 42.8 Kilohertz (kHz), but this can vary slightly dependant upon water conditions (impurities, temperature, weather, etc.). Harmonic peaks also appear around 110 kHz and above. I’d like to regress back to the chemistry of water in this section. I am assuming that the structure of the water molecule is – Oxygen N S Hydrogen Hydrogen S N This configuration of overlapping wave packets would cause a drawing together of the two hydrogen atoms thus narrowing the tetrahedral angle because of their mutual magnetic attraction. This is what is observed by experimentation. Now, as my interest is to break this bond I would have to do 3 things: (1) first stretch the bond overlapping wave packets via a polarized EM field, (2) then either force the hydrogen atoms closer together or farther apart by flexing (oscillating) a EM field, then (3) twisting hydrogen atoms so that one reverses polarity and thus becomes repulsive to the other.

The third part is the toughest one to solve because the water molecule is already polarized and will align itself naturally head-to-tail in an electromagnetic field. Simply, the reversed hydrogen atom will resist EM torque except in very strong EM fields (plasma arcs for example). The key to using water as a fuel is thus in finding out how to twist or break this odd hydrogen bond using the least amount of energy. This is where resonance frequencies come in or various light frequencies. This is fundamentally what happens in photolysis. Infrared light heats up the water molecule to stretch the bonds and then UV light at various frequencies finish the job. In photolysis the UV frequencies being tested are in the following ranges:
				Photolysis Frequencies

		Symmetrical Stretch:		185 nm (nanometers)
Bending :	  		193 nm
		Asymmetric Stretch:		248 nm
There are other frequencies that also contribute and may be harmonics. These include 218.5 nm, 222 nm, 239.5 nm and 308 nm. Apparently, 248 nm and 308 nm cause florescence to occur as well (the water lights up by shedding photons.) It has also been proven that water dissociates at several other well-known frequencies:
Other Water Dissociation Frequencies

1,575 nm
3,657 nm
3,756 nm
Stanley Meyer experimented with laser light in his water cells by using fiber optic cables inserted into his reaction chamber. Apparently this did improve gas production, but at what light frequencies and how did he generate the specific light frequencies needed? He didn’t say….before the MIB killed him. (True story) In the lab this is done with a number of expensive lasers and mirror arrangements that would not be practical in a family sedan. LED’s, however, may be a solution if the right frequencies in the UV range can be generated. I don’t know anyone making such UV LED’s at this time, but it should be possible. Visible light doesn’t seem to have enough energy, however, there should be specific harmonics in the visible range that could assist in this process. Using light as a principal source for splitting water, however, has proven to be inefficient and thus the search has turned to other resonance sources. The first to do this was John Wesley Keely way back in the 1800’s. He accomplished this by using tuning forks placed in water. He found that resonance dissociation occurred around 600 Hz and specifically at 620 Hz (1st octave) and 630 Hz (2nd octave) and 12,000 Hz (3rd octave) and 42.8 kHz. A century later Dr. Andrija Puharich independently discovered these and other frequencies using his own designed resonance device and using AM amplifiers and AC current in a saltwater solution. He found his greatest success at only 25-38 mA and 4-2.6 volts or a power input of 0.1 watts was needed to create resonance within an output range of 59.748 kHz-66.234 kHz. The interesting thing that happened though was that the frequency input in the reactor cell with distilled water in it DROPPED from the 66.234kHz to 1.272 kHz to 1.848 kHz and the waveform changed from a sine wave to a rippled square wave. He also noted that if he removed one lead (created an open circuit) the frequency would jump back up to 5-6 kHz, and the cell would generate unipolar pulses of 0-1.3 volts, noting that the water was acting as a capacitor with a charge cycle of .0002 seconds (which happens to correspond to how the human nervous system works!) When Dr. Puharich added salt (NaCl) to create a 0.9% saline solution (seawater), the electrolyte resonance effect of course changed. At this point he was using 1mAmp and 22 volts and testing at various frequencies for saltwater resonance. The waveform in the saltwater changed from the rippled square wave to a rippled sawtooth wave, which apparently is the best waveform for maximum efficiency. The resonance frequencies and their harmonics using this electrolyte solution were noted as:
		Initial frequency 	  3.98 kHz
		1st Harmonic		  7.96 kHz  
  		2nd Harmonic		15.92 kHz
		3rd Harmonic		31.84 kHz
		4th Harmonic		63.69 kHz
 
I rather like Dr. Puharich’s approach in using saltwater, as this is the most abundant resource on the planet, also, because the electrolyte assists in the polarization of the water molecules and specifically in the flip-flop of the odd hydrogen bond. See more on Dr. Puharich in Part 8 of my watercar briefs. One of Dr. Puharich’s friends and brother outcaste from the scientific community was Dr. Bob Beck. Dr. Beck was a physicist who studied devices that could influence brainwaves and directly promote healing using electromagnetic stimulation through the skin (particularly over the veins in the wrist) to polarize and alter viruses and other things in the blood so that they could be killed and excreted from the system. He has CURED addictions of all kinds in 3-5 days without withdrawal symptoms and CURED AIDS, cancers and almost all viral and other infections with these stimulation devices. Naturally he joins as an ‘outcaste’ as the pharmaceutical, medical, tobacco, alcohol and other medical care syndicates certainly don’t want CURES as it is bad for business. He also reported that high-tension wires cause cancer in people living near them, which is true but doesn’t make friends with the power companies. The importance of Dr. Beck’s research in low frequencies is that he found that hydrogen naturally resonates at about 8 Hz. This is a primary healing frequency. However, what I find more interesting is the following relationship-
	Multiples of    8Hz		Keely (f)	 8.152 Hz

	X   75		 600 Hz	610 Hz		611.4 Hz
	X   78		 624 Hz	630 Hz		635.9 Hz
	X 150		    1.2 kHz	  1.2kHz	    1.223 kHz
	X 5250		  42.0 kHz	42.8 kHz	  42.8 kHz
	X13750	110.0 kHz	 na		112.1 kHz
These directly relate to the tonal harmonics at the resonance frequency of water and should be able to be extrapolated to other harmonics at even higher frequencies. These also correlate to Puharich’s findings when the frequency in his cell dropped to 1.272 kHz to 1.848 kHz. A variable range is indicated by the oscillating capacitance of the water itself, variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure and other impurities from the chamber or electrodes. This is close to the 1.2 kHz harmonic and within an acceptable resonance range for hydrogen as noted above. Dr. Puharich’s addition of a salt electrolyte will, of course, change the resonance frequencies according to those noted above due to the ionic influence on the water molecules in the electromagnetic field being applied. I see the same approach being used by Proffesor Santilli in his ‘PlasmaArcFlow’ devices that use saltwater feeds. Hmmmm. Do great minds think alike? What I am arriving at in the logical progression of base frequencies and their tonal harmonics, is that the most efficient resonance device for splitting water would be one that emits a variety of frequencies into an electromagnetic reaction chamber. The efficiency will depend on the base frequency used and the purity of the water or concentration of the electrolyte used. I prefer a general approach to taking real world situations (water samples) and then adjusting your equipment to handle these variable conditions. Maintaining resonance or a plasma arc is not easy and requires constant adjustments as the conditions in the water change due to increased chemical concentrations, temperature variations, bubbles, etc. For example, under observed resonance conditions the temperature in the reactor chamber actually decreases to a point where the reaction stops. That is, energy is drawn out of the water faster than is being replaced by the frequency stimulation energy being applied. At resonance, these reactors run cold and thus require heaters and temperature control devices to function properly or alternatively computer control circuits to constantly adjust frequencies to maintain resonance. I would thus think that if you generate a plasma arc at a frequency multiple of 8 Hz and in harmonic to that frequency, you may create a cool reaction, hence the name ‘cold fusion’. This seems also to be the general direction, Prof. Alexander Chernetski, at the Moscow Georgi Plenknanof Institute has been doing. His over-unity (OU) plasma generators use strong electromagnetic fields to create a CRITICAL DENSITY. But I am intrigued by this ‘critical density’. It may be more efficient to magnetically and/or physically compress water at the point of resonance (arc) than to create solely an anode-to-diode polarized field. AND THIS IS WHAT Santilli and Chernetski DO IN THEIR ARC REACTORS. Clever boys. I have also seen EM coils used in other resonators, either on the outside, or as coiled electrodes! (Meyer and Xogen patents) This leads me to believe that you should not have to go all the way with a high voltage plasma arc to create enough gas to power an engine. But the efficiency will be more if PRESSURE, either physical and/or electromagnetic is applied. And by the way, a Chinese fellow has patented an electrolysis unit that only runs on electromagnetic fields. Not that efficient, but it works with no moving parts. Creating a specific frequency is done the same way as your cellular phone works. You have an oscillating crystal that you tune to a particular transmitting frequency (or receiving frequency), and then you amplify the signal to transmit it. Crystals vibrate at a constant frequency, thus in order to get the frequency you want, you either have to divide or multiply the crystal vibrating frequency to attain the desired frequency range or ranges that you want to work with. Frequency is a wave, like in the ocean, and it has peaks and troughs. Electronic waves can control the height of the wave or ‘amplitude’, again through a ‘pot’, thus you can have strong waves or weak waves. The circuit that you really want is one that can produce a number of different wave heights at different frequencies. What you really want to create is a ‘frequency soup’ that produces the key frequencies and their harmonics that disassociate the water molecules AND other frequencies that disassociate the hydrogen and oxygen molecules from recombining into H2 and O2. Simply, you want to make ‘Brown’s Gas’ if possible. Bob Boyce did this with an “adjustable frequency modified pseudo-sine-wave inverter and a series of bridge rectifiers”. Woah! What was that! Black boxes again!? Not so bad, boys. The ‘adjustable frequency’ is a number of variable resistors (pots). The ‘modified pseudo-sine-wave inverter’ is your digital square wave (on/off) that is ramped up and down in amplitude to mimic a sine wave (shaped like an ocean wave) and comes as an off-the-shelf unit. And the “bridge rectifiers” are 4 diodes that convert AC current to only go in one direction as in DC current. AC AC DC DC Diodes may be a bit confusing, but they are only a one-way valve that has current flowing in the opposite direction of the ‘arrow’. Simply negative current flows from right to left in the above diagram. Alternating current, however, moves back and forth, thus the diodes will block current flow in one direction each way, only allowing a half-wave to pass into the DC circuit. Bridge rectifiers are used to convert AC current into DC current and they are most often encased in black plastic so that you cannot see the cheap diodes (only the 4 legs sticking out from under the covers.) Then they print some funny numbers on the plastic and call it an IC (integrated circuit) and charge you 10 times the price of the diodes. Fancy ones even hide a resistor or capacitor inside the plastic too! But they cost even more! Make your own. Diodes are cheap. AC DC DC DC The bridge rectifiers allow you to split the electrical flow in 3 different directions without changing the frequency. The frequency is then controlled with variable resistors. Linking a number of bridge rectifiers together means that you are able to increase the number of splits and thus have more and more possible frequency outputs. This allows you to create a specific ‘frequency soup’ in your water by simply adjusting your variable resistors to different settings until things boil over. Bob Boyce started with an off-the-shelf 300-watt inverter that he ‘modified’ to have a base frequency of 700-800 Hz. He then ran this base frequency through the bridge rectifiers to create 8-16 new frequency channels that he could individually tune to a specific frequency. Each of these adjusted frequencies is amplified and then fed into the reaction chamber via the reactor plates. There is a problem here that you should be aware of. Splitting frequencies on the same circuit can result in some sections of the circuit getting more power than others, causing overloads and surges that can bugger everything up. One way to avoid this is the way your radio or TV works. You have one circuit for each frequency (channel or station) that you wish to broadcast. Yes, this means duplicating the same circuit several times for each frequency, but ONLY the frequency portion. This all sounds complicated, but it is nothing more than a walkie-talkie that broadcasts on several channels or your radio or TV that receives many channels. Soon you will see hand-phones that will be able to send and receive multiple calls all at the same time, switching between one call and the other. Sorry, I have to put you on “hold”! And speaking of ‘hold’, you will quickly find that your resonance settings that you so carefully adjusted to attain resonance, will only work in set positions for a brief period of time. Getting a ‘hold’ on resonance is difficult over time as temperature, pressure, electrolyte concentration, bubble size, spacing and other factors are VARIABLES that keep changing as the reactor is in operation. One solution is to mount your electronics on the dashboard and adjust your pots till LED’s indicate resonance. That aught to be fun in traffic. Alternatively, use a computer to maintain proper adjustment based on sensor inputs. This is the actual direction things are going, but it requires a computer engineer/programmer and knowledge of sensors and electronics. This will be a team effort to come up with an appropriate black box, and I don’t know any car manufacturer or oil company that will sponsor this R&D.

Voltage Your frequency soup is then mixed together and then amplified through an “amplifier”. Simply you make the waves bigger by running them through some power transistors. The 12V DC voltage from the battery through your throttle pot controls this. Now if you build your electronic unit from the designs that you get off the Web, IT PROBABLY WON’T WORK! Most electronic designers cheat by NOT telling you everything you need to know. Their drawings may be minus a resistor, capacitor or a diode, or the IC’s or transistors are not properly rated for12 volt systems or the amps that you are running, and so on. My advice…. get professional help!

Building the Gas Generator An oscillating frequency gas generator produces both hydrogen and oxygen gas at the same time and at pressure. Once you hit the right frequency a mixed gas is produced. The amount is determined by the pulse width (duration) and voltage applied. This can be in copious amounts but limited by pressure switches and pressure relief valves as above to a maximum of 40-45 psi or other pressure setting as you may determine optimum for our engine size and acceleration demand. Often a second storage chamber is used for these mixed gases just to act as a buffer gas supply. Very high pressure systems, however, should be avoided when using a mixed gas as this can cause self-ignition and a dandy explosion (as in your car’s engine). High pressure systems also require more expensive regulators to step-down the pressure coming into your carburetor (something like a scuba regulator or those used for 3,000 psi hydrogen gas supplies).

Mixed Gas Generator

           Pressure Gauge        Relief Valve       Check and Solenoid Valves
          (Dash Mounted)
									To Carburetor
  Pressure Switch

     Oscillating 
     Negative			        Mixed Gas (2H2 + O2)			   12V DC +
     In Series
    Water IN									       
										        
										  Water OUT



 
 								     
										 
   
The chamber can be made out of just about anything that can withstand the applied pressure. Some use 6”-8” PVC water pipe with cleanouts on both ends through which electrode wires and fittings are attached. If metal containers are used make sure that the electrodes are properly isolated. It is also possible to electrically charge the cylinder positive (+) and connect the positive electrodes directly to the casing, but the casing will have to be properly isolated from the car frame (-). Shown above is the old battery casing model. Preferred are stainless steel 316 electrodes, however, other metals can also be used but may suffer from corrosion due to the normal acidity or alkalinity of tap water in various locations. Anyone for gold electrodes? Electrodes work best between 1mm-1.5mm apart. That isn’t very much so use isolating spacers like 1 mm plastic washers to keep the electrodes apart. If you are on the cheap, go out and buy old plastic combs and insert the plates between the teeth. Any number of electrode pairs can be used. The importance is not the number of plates, but more in the total surface area exposed and the distance between plates. The thickness of the electrodes also doesn’t seem to matter as the ‘action’ takes place between the electrode surfaces. Plates or tubes should be thick enough to stand on their own and not be effected by bubble action, that’s all. And scratched, grooved or rough surfaces create even more exposed surface area and areas for bubbles to form. The distance between plates should be 1.0-1.5 mm and spacers should be used as described in previous Parts. The distance between plates is determined a bit more by bubble size than anything else. Bigger bubbles will displace more water and thus slow the reaction (and cause all kinds of funny measurements within the reaction chamber). The electrodes must also be raised off the bottom of the tank so that water can be drawn up through the plates or tubes. This will be automatic as the gas bubbles rise to the surface of the water. The best results are obtained in systems that are designed to allow a circular water flow current in the reaction chamber. Any number of plates can be used or the system can use tubes of varying diameters nested inside each other. Stanley Meyer ran his old VW on 6 double tube cells only.



				    +              +

					        _
				    _
 
Double-double tubes do create a better circulation within the cell, but the tubes have to be spaced at least 5 mm apart unless inner and outer charging is altered. (Same charges repel.) There is a conflict of opinion as to whether or not the electrodes should be fully immersed in the cell or not fully immersed in the electrolyte solution. I’d go for fully immersed. There is also dispute as to the electrolyte used. Some say just use tap water. Hmmm. That should crud up things pretty fast. I’d go with sodium hydroxide (NaOH or common lye) or potassium hydroxide (a bit more expensive but better performance). Acids or mineral salt solutions might also have some benefits. Electrolyte solutions should always be topped up with distilled water if possible. I also prefer a flow-through system for the electrolyte, but the flow only needs to be minimal unless you are conducting a flush. This approach has very few precipitates, thus flushing will be seldom unless you are using cruddy water. As this is a self-pressurized container, water entering and exiting must be valved and the water pump should be strong enough to pump water into the container at maximum pressures. This isn’t absolutely necessary because as the water level drops less gas is produced and pressures drop. Level switches inside the chamber control the water pump which goes through a backpressure check-valve. A water pressure release valve is then set higher than the gas relief valve and this controls water flowing out, if any. In operation the water in the chamber will become ‘dirty’ due to the eventual concentration of water impurities and precipitates that will form. This dirty water can be occasionally ‘flushed’ out by simply lifting the water pressure relief valve and dumping the water to the ground. It is probably best that this be done every time you fill-up with more water in the main tank. If you are lazy, put a solenoid activated relief valve in and a button on the dash. Dirty water may hamper the process as it can create ionic reactions and cause sparks to jump between the electrodes. It is thus best to flush occasionally and clean the plates or tubes whenever you notice a drop in performance. A dashboard pressure gauge will tell you if you are producing gas, usually within a pressure range suitable under normal engine operating conditions and pressure switch settings. If the production pressure is higher, then you are producing too much gas and you need to adjust your throttle resistor.
Electromagnets
One of the variations used by Miller and Chambers (Xogen) is to place an electromagnetic coil in the path of the exiting mixed gases. This electromagnet is just coiled stainless steel wire isolated from the tubes or plates and pulsed at a different rate. This apparently has the effect of re-aligning the electron spins in the hydrogen atoms so that they are in the same direction. This is supposed to create ‘parahydrogen’ from the normal ‘orthohydrogen’, noting that the ‘para-‘ version tends to burn slower. This is more of a gimmick to get a patent than anything else. If you want to slow down the reaction in combustion, just add water vapor. No big deal. Alternatively, if you want the ‘para-’ version, just wrap an electromagnet around your gas fuel line. That’s easier than dunking it in the water. Another modification that I haven’t seen anybody try yet is the coiling of an electromagnet around the outer tube in a tube reactor using coated copper wire. The effect will be the same as in the ‘Aussie Reactor’ to create a polarized field and most likely you will end up getting a multi-mixed gas containing some nitrous hydroxides, particularly if you bubble some air into the reaction chamber in small quantities or use a vacuum approach to drawing off the gases. “Gas” Tanks: You might also want to consider installing a small cylinder for gas storage along your fuel line. This is usually nothing more that a 1-2 liter bottle that acts as a temporary gas storage vessel that creates a buffer in your fuel delivery system on start-up and rapid acceleration. Generally, your reactor will have a slight time lag from the time you press the pedal till more gas is produced. Having a ready supply simply buffers that time lag. This temporary gas storage can be in the form of a bubbler container or a separate canister placed somewhere along the fuel line. You don’t want to contain much gas, as this is explosive, thus keep the size down to a level that is most appropriate for your engine size.
Engine Modifications:
As with the hydrogen cell engine modifications previously described, you will need a gas regulator and an “anti-rust-proofing” of the engine and exhaust system. Timing will have to be set even further ahead as no other fuel is used. Water Injection and Steam Engines You will also need to install a “bubbler” or some other water vapor injection system, particularly one that uses your exhaust in order vaporize the water used to retard the combustion. This can be done by coiling copper or stainless steel flexible tubing around your exhaust pipe from your water supply. This will create steam or at least hot water. Using a bubbler, the hot water vapor is sucked into your engine at the intake manifold. This is easy with a normally carbureted engine. If your car is fuel injected, you might just run your hot water/steam into the fuel injectors as these inject direct to the intake manifold just before the intake valves. Fuel injectors vaporize the water to a certain degree and the heat in the manifold does the rest. You can also create your own water injection system by just getting a fuel injector and drilling a hole in your intake manifold for this. Hook this up to your water supply line (not your electrolyte water supply) usually from a water tank with a small electric pump. Use normal tap water only. If you want to create a lot of steam fast, use a microwave generator from an old microwave oven in a sealed container. Be sure and use a pressure switch here though to turn the microwave generator on and off. As an aside, did you know that the first radar that was designed using microwaves didn’t work. They tried it in the lab and it worked fine, but when they took it out for testing along the coast to spot ships, they got no reflection. Somehow the scientists had managed to hit the resonance frequency of water on their first try and they were just heating up the ocean! They changed the frequency and radar became a reality, but so did “radar ovens”. If you want to make a microwave boiler, make sure that the system is properly shielded, as you really don’t want to boil the water in your engine’s cooling system, or even in your own personal system. A grounded metal casing is sufficient. A microwave boiler can produce steam very fast and thus run dry very fast, so you will have to balance on/off cycles with water intake and steam outflow. The microwave frequencies for boiling water do not cause the water bonds to be broken, but there may be specific high frequencies that do split the water molecules. I don’t know any as yet, but there will be harmonics that will promote or assist in this process. This will take some experimentation and adjustment to the microwave frequency output signals, but this experimentation is not for beginners as microwave devices are very dangerous to work with. You can fry yourself if you are not extra careful! How much water to inject will depend on your gas/air/water mix ratios. The more that you can squeeze in the better, but give yourself some leeway. Also, the water injection system will work better when the engine is hot versus cold, so you may want to use a thermal switch to trigger the system. This approach may not work in cold climates where freezing of the water may be a problem (add some alcohol to the water to lower the freezing temperature and still get a bang in the cylinders or put electric heaters in your water tanks). I would recommend a little moonshine mix in any case just to add some carbon to the combustion process to coat the cylinders and exhaust system a little bit. But don’t waste Southern Comfort on your car. A little methanol or ethanol will do just fine. Water vapor in the combustion cylinders does 3 things: (1) it retards the combustion (slows it down) and (2) it creates high-pressure steam, which creates more force on the top of the piston during the power stroke. This creates more torque and power in your engine. Just what you wanted. (3) The third thing is that it displaces some of the fuel needed to run your engine. Simply, you run on less fuel. This reduces your gas intake and subsequently your need to produce gas (i.e., the size of your reactor). You will not be able to run your engine as a compete steam engine, but you should get a lot more mileage from your fuel. This water/steam injection system can thus be used even on any existing reciprocating engine to improve performance as noted in the first section concerning bubblers. Various people over the years have tried water injection on gas and diesel engines with success. They have been able to reduce fuel consumption by 40%-60% in lean conditions with no ill effects to the car. The only thing you get is a nice plume of steam out the exhaust. Really cool effect on a cold day!
Over-unity
This oscillating frequency system, particularly in conjunction with a water injection system, may be an over-unity system. Over-unity means that you get more useful energy out than what you put in. In this case, the frequency generator uses very few amps of power to generate the gas, which powers the engine and alternator, which runs the frequency generator. Simply, you technically use less energy to create more energy. And you can even re-circulate some of this energy back from the exhaust heat. That is really neat! In business it is called “profit”! Proper scientific bench testing will confirm this over-unity, but that is up to the engineers and mathematicians. Let’s just be happy that it works really well for us.
System Adjustments:
This oscillating frequency system can easily be designed and adjusted to produce more gas than any car engine can consume. All that you do is add more plates or tubes or have multiple generating units all operating off your car battery and alternator. The draw on the alternator/battery is only in milliamps so no worries there and no heat is produced. You will still have to adjust the fuel production to throttle demand in static and road testing. This will also have to be adjusted to water injection ratios. But these are easily fiddled with until you get a reasonable mix. Tuning your resonator will be a bit more difficult depending upon how many frequencies you intend to produce in your frequency soup. Target the known key frequencies and then their harmonics, then shut these off and tune in others that work. Then combine all together and fiddle with your pots some more. This is like a cooking class, isn’t it? In the end you will want to mount your electronics in a waterproof box and mount it somewhere convenient. A plastic box with holes for wires to go in and out of and some silicone sealer is all that is required. A screw on lid is preferred, as you will want to tinker with your settings from time to time, but these can be adjusted from pots that you run through the sides of the box. Label each pot and switch clearly because you are bound to forget what-does-what. There is no final adjustment for a tinkerer, so just have fun fiddling with your circuit and system adjustments. Keep a record of water consumption and mileage. Then change the settings again and see if you get any improvements. Trial and error will get you to some thing that will work best. And the first one to get 10,000 miles on a gallon of water will get the Kramer Prize! What is the Kramer Prize? Don’t ask.
BIG Cars are BETTER!
The use of a simple electrolysis, oscillating frequency or plasma water fuel system simply means that you can now afford to operate a BIG CAR for FREE! You are no longer limited to small engine sizes just to save fuel. You make your own fuel for FREE and on demand! So up-grade your car to that 6-liter V-12 engine you have always dreamed of and muscle your way down the highway! Where’s my old GTO? 427 Shelby Cobra? This seems a bit unreal but it really works! And the bigger the car the better! You normally have more room in the engine compartment and trunk with a big car too.
Design Modifications:
A modification noted by Meyer was that gas production seemed to be increased in the presence of laser light. What frequency, he did not say. Did he use LED’s inside the reaction chamber? Don’t know. If LED’s work, fine and dandy, but heck if I’m going to invest in a high-voltage argon laser system for my old Volvo. Laser light is a mono-frequency, which should have an effect on the water molecules alignment. Again the right frequency of light will also be a harmonic of the frequencies that split the water molecules, but producing the ‘right’ light frequency is often very difficult. UV light (black light) might also work, but again this is a broad frequency spectrum that is difficult to isolate specific harmonic frequencies needed. A third modification is to use an ultrasonic generator. This really isn’t needed on an oscillating system, as the bubbles are never attached to the electrodes. In fact, the oscillating system is essentially ultrasonic by design! But there may be harmonic frequencies that aid in the disassociation process. Experiment! Magnets can also be used around the water line before or after the reactor and around the fuel line to polarize the fuel mix before entering the carburetor. Experiment with either alternating fields or preferably monopoles (i.e. north or south only). These magnets are available for standard gas feed lines at most car accessory shops or you can make your own with some insulated copper wire. The injection of sound as noted above for normal electrolysis units is another method. Keeley recommends generating sound at one or all of the following: 620 - 630 - 12,000 - 42,800 hertz. You can sing the first two yourself. Mmmmmmm! Bob Boyce’s systems are also worth looking at as he generates a number of different frequencies and their harmonics to split the water and create mono-atomic hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) called Brown’s Gas. This gives a bigger bang and you use less, but it is very unstable and has to be made on demand close to where it will be used. Yull Brown’s US patent for ‘Brown’s Gas’ is No. 4,014,777, but he just uses a normal electrolysis unit and then runs the gases through a plasma arc under water in order to disassociate the molecules. Disassociating with the right frequencies is the cleaner and more economical way to go.
Other Water Car Designs
One very old patent uses a caustic soda bath built right into the carburetor and does the electrolysis right there! Great way to eat up your engine. Then there are commercial “Brown’s Gas” generators, which are used in welding. These are a bit big to fit into the boot (trunk) but if you find a cheap one??? And I really don’t want to get into “Joe’s Cells”. Too many weird claims. But these are just multi-tube cells. And if Thomas Bearden can ever get his “over-unity” magnets to produce enough power to run a car…..well, you can throw away your water and your engine and go all electric! A few other options involve a similar ‘over-unity’ or ‘zero point’ machines that have promise, but commercial reality is not there yet. Most are based on rare earth (expensive) permanent magnets, that once you get them spinning, well, they just keep on going …..forever! Our industry is still stuck with old reciprocating engines for a while longer, so think WATER for the time being and save money and the environment! Now, lets see…..how can I FLY using WATER? That I already know how to do but that will be another report for some time later….